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Table 4 Three models of multivariable logistic regression investigating factors associated with wasting among children under-5 years of age in Rwanda

From: Impact of implementing performance-based financing on childhood malnutrition in Rwanda

  I: AOR (95% CI) II: AOR (95% CI) III: AOR (95% CI)
Child characteristics
Sex    
 Male 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Female 0.94 (0.53 - 1.65) 0.68 (0.36 - 1.30) 0.64 (0.33 - 1.23)
Age in months    
 0-5 months 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 6-11 months 0.44 (0.13 - 1.53) 0.50 (0.14 - 1.85) 0.42 (0.11 - 1.60)
 12-23 months 0.26 (0.08 – 0.80) 0.28 (0.08 - 0.96) 0.28 (0.08 - 0.96)
 24-35 months 0.53 (0.20 - 1.43) 0.51 (0.17 - 1.50) 0.45 (0.15 - 1.36)
 36-47 months 0.42 (0.15 - 1.15) 0.43 (0.14 - 1.32) 0.38 (0.12 - 1.20)
 48-60 months 0.35 (0.13 - 0.95) 0.20 (0.06 - 0.71) 0.17 (0.04 - 0.64)
Health insurance    
 No 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes 0.95 (0.46 - 1.98) 0.84 (0.37 - 1.89) 0.85 (0.37 - 1.93)
HIV status    
 Negative 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Positive 0.89 (0.25 - 3.19) 0.80 (0.16 - 3.89) 1.00 (0.20 - 5.03)
Recent illness    
 No 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes 1.46 (0.80 - 2.68) 1.29 (0.65 - 2.56) 1.21 (0.60 - 2.44)
Maternal characteristics
Education    
 None   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Primary   0.68 (0.32 - 1.43) 0.73 (0.34 - 1.56)
 > Primary   0.62 (0.18 - 2.13) 0.64 (0.18 - 2.22)
Age (continuous)   0.98 (0.93 - 1.03) 0.98 (0.92 - 1.04)
Marital status    
 Married   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Divorced/widowed   1.26 (0.59 - 2.38) 1.24 (0.56 - 2.72)
 Never married   0.93 (0.29 - 2.96) 0.77 (0.23 - 2.54)
HIV status    
 Negative   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Positive   1.37 (0.64 – 2.93) 1.28 (0.59 - 2.77)
Emotional problems    
 No   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes   0.99 (0.98 - 1.00) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.00)
Social functioning    
 High   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Low   0.99 (0.98 - 1.00) 0.99 (0.98 - 1.00)
Physical health    
 Good   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Poor   1.00 (1.00 - 1.00) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00)
Household characteristics
Catastrophic health expenditure    
 <20% income spent    1.00 (−−)
 20% - 40% income spent    1.08 (0.27 – 4.32)
 ≥ 40% income spent    1.77 (0.44 – 7.04)
Have other children under 5 years    
 No    1.00 (−−)
 Yes    0.98 (0.68 – 3.23)
Performance-based financing
 Lives in Phase II district    1.00 (−−)
 Lives in Phase 0 district    1.48 (0.68 - 3.23)
 Lives in Phase I district    0.43 (0.19 - 0.97)
  1. AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval.
  2. I: Adjusted for child characteristics.
  3. II: Adjusted for child characteristics and maternal characteristics.
  4. III: Adjusted for child characteristics, maternal characteristics, household characteristics and PBF.
  5. Bold typeface indicates factors significantly associated with malnutrition at the 0.05 significance level.