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Table 2 Three models of multivariable logistic regression investigating factors associated with underweight children under-5 years of age in Rwanda

From: Impact of implementing performance-based financing on childhood malnutrition in Rwanda

  I: AOR (95% CI) II: AOR (95% CI) III: AOR (95% CI)
Child characteristics
Sex    
 Male 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Female 1.13 (0.79 – 1.62) 1.00 (0.68 - 1.48) 1.06 (0.71 - 1.58)
Age in months    
 0-5 months 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 6-11 months 0.55 (0.24 - 1.28) 0.63 (0.26 - 1.55) 0.58 (0.23 - 1.46)
 12-23 months 0.57 (0.28 - 1.18) 0.58 (0.26 - 1.28) 0.58 (0.26 - 1.30)
 24-35 months 0.76 (0.38 - 1.51) 0.86 (0.41 - 1.79) 0.83 (0.39 - 1.76)
 36-47 months 0.68 (0.34 - 1.38) 0.62 (0.29 - 1.33) 0.60 (0.27 - 1.32)
 48-60 months 0.59 (0.30 - 1.16) 0.52 (0.24 - 1.15) 0.54 (0.24 - 1.19)
Health insurance    
 No 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes 0.96 (0.60 - 1.54) 1.05 (0.63 - 1.76) 1.09 (0.64 - 1.86)
HIV status    
 Negative 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Positive 1.17 (0.51 - 2.66) 1.38 (0.56 - 3.38) 1.30 (0.50 - 3.41)
Recent illness    
 No 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes 1.01 (0.67 - 1.53) 0.97 (0.63 - 1.50) 1.02 (0.65 - 1.59)
Maternal characteristics
Education    
 None   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Primary   1.23 (0.76 - 2.00) 1.31 (0.80 - 2.16)
 > Primary   0.90 (0.42 - 1.95) 0.84 (0.38 - 1.88)
Age (continuous)   1.00 (0.97 - 1.04) 1.00 (0.97 - 1.04)
Marital status    
 Married   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Divorced/widowed   1.18 (0.71 - 1.95) 1.23 (0.73 - 2.06)
 Never married   0.74 (0.35 - 1.57) 0.79 (0.37 - 1.70)
HIV status    
 Negative   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Positive   0.72 (0.46 - 1.12) 0.77 (0.49 - 1.22)
Emotional problems    
 No   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Yes   1.00 (1.00 - 1.00) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00)
Social functioning    
 High   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Low   1.00 (0.99 - 1.01) 1.00 (0.99 - 1.01)
Physical health    
 Good   1.00 (−−) 1.00 (−−)
 Poor   1.00 (1.00 - 1.00) 1.00 (1.00 - 1.00)
Household characteristics
Catastrophic health expenditure    
 <20% income spent    1.00 (−−)
 20% - 40% income spent    0.75 (0.31 - 1.84)
 ≥ 40% income spent    1.42 (0.61 - 3.32)
Have other children under 5 years    
 No    1.00 (−−)
 Yes    1.16 (0.89 - 1.51)
Performance-based financing
 Lives in Phase II district    1.00 (−−)
 Lives in Phase 0 district    0.87 (0.48 - 1.59)
 Lives in Phase I district    0.88 (0.57 - 1.35)
  1. AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval.
  2. I: Adjusted for child characteristics.
  3. II: Adjusted for child characteristics and maternal characteristics.
  4. III: Adjusted for child characteristics, maternal characteristics, household characteristics and PBF.