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Table 2 Cervical cancer risk factor and symptoms knowledge (n = 876)

From: Knowledge of cervical cancer and attendance at cervical cancer screening: a survey of Black women in London

  N %*
Risk factors for cervical cancer   
  Having many sexual partners 132 15.1
  Smoking 102 11.6
  Not going for regular smear tests 89 10.2
  Unprotected sex 57 6.5
  Infection, STI/STD or virus 48 5.5
  Starting to have sex at a young age 44 5.0
  Infection with Human papillomavirus 38 4.3
  Long term use of the contraceptive pill 17 1.9
  Having many children 5 0.6
  Having a weakened immune system 3 0.3
Symptoms of cervical cancer   
  Vaginal bleeding between periods 282 32.2
  Abnormal discharge 219 25.0
  Persistent pelvic/abdominal pain 145 16.6
  Pain/discomfort during sex 78 8.9
  Vaginal bleeding during/after sex 56 6.4
  Persistant lower back pain 13 1.5
  Blood in stool/urine 13 1.5
  Unexplained weight loss 12 1.4
  Heavier/longer periods than normal 6 0.7
  Vaginal bleeding after the menopause 4 0.5
  1. *Percentage of entire sample; Women were able to select more than one risk factor/symptom.
  2. Note: Risk factors/Symptoms identified in the NHS Department of Health’s ‘Key Messages’ on cervical cancer [18].