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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of air pollution and other risk factors for respiratory diseases by gender

From: Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

  Current asthma Life-time asthma Current bronchitis Life-time bronchitis Current allergic rhinitis Life-time allergic rhinitis
Boys       
MPD (LPD as ref) 0.87 1.23 0.85 0.74 0.69* 0.71*
(0.31, 2.40) (0.65, 2.31) (0.52, 1.39) (0.50, 1.08) (0.49, 0.98) (0.50, 0.99)
HPD (LPD as ref) 2.26# 1.82# 1.22 1.00 1.07 1.03
(0.91, 5.61) (0.95, 3.49) (0.73, 2.02) (0.67, 1.51) (0.74, 1.54) (0.72, 1.48)
Member of team sports 0.29#      
(0.09, 1.01)      
Playing with furry toys      1.44# 1.57*
     (0.99, 2.09) (1.08, 2.28)
Mould 5.32** 2.26**     
(1.82, 15.56) (1.31, 3.90)     
Incense      1.47* 1.52*
     (1.05, 2.05) (1.09, 2.12)
More-ventilated in summer      0.72* 0.70*
     (0.53, 0.97) (0.52, 0.95)
More-ventilated in winter    0.62*   1.65** 1.50*
   (0.41, 0.96)   (1.15, 2.36) (1.06, 2.12)
Girls       
MPD (LPD as ref) 1.40 0.87 1.26 0.93 0.56** 0.59**
(0.39, 5.04) (0.43, 1.77) (0.74, 2.15) (0.61, 1.41) (0.38, 0.82) (0.41, 0.85)
HPD (LPD as ref) 0.85 0.91 1.05 0.89 0.78 0.89
(0.20, 3.69) (0.44, 1.88) (0.60, 1.85) (0.58, 1.37) (0.53, 1.15) (0.62, 1.27)
Physical activity   1.91*     
  (1.08, 3.38)     
More outdoors   0.46*     
  (0.25, 0.83)     
Mould      1.38# 1.29
     (0.97, 1.98) (0.92, 1.82)
Pets   0.32*     
  (0.12, 0.84)     
  1. LPD: low-pollution district; MPD: moderate-pollution district; HPD: high-pollution district.
  2. #P < 0.10; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
  3. District (indicating air pollution), age, father’s occupation, birth place were forcibly included in the models. Other factors were selected using stepwise method and the entry and removal criteria of variables were P = 0.10 and P = 0.15, respectively.
  4. The variables presented with adjusted ORs and 95% CIs were included in the final models, and the remaining variables (with adjusted ORs only) were adjusted for the variables included in the final models only.
  5. Parental asthma was adjusted for in all models except for current and life-time allergic rhinitis among girls (adjusted ORs: 1.89-5.32, P < 0.05); Parental allergy was adjusted for in all models except for current asthma among boys (adjusted ORs: 2.30-4.33, P < 0.05).