Skip to main content

Table 2 Respiratory symptoms and diseases of the subjects

From: Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory morbidities among Chinese children: a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong

  All (%) Boys (%) Girls (%)
Boys (n = 1141) Girls (n = 1062) LPD (n = 485) MPD (n = 393) HPD (n = 263) LPD (n = 428) MPD (n = 278) HPD (n = 278)
Respiratory symptoms n % n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Wheezing with shortness of breath 1088 2.2 1019 2.4 463 2.2 372 1.6 253 3.2 416 1.9 335 2.1 268 3.4
Wheezing with medication 1088 3.2 1019 3.0 463 3.0 372 2.7 253 4.3 416 2.9 335 3.0 268 3.4
Any wheezing 1088 5.1 1019 4.6 463 5.0 372 4.8 253 5.9 416 3.6 335 4.8 268 6.0
Cough at night 1069 20.1 984 20.6 457 18.6 368 23.4 244 18.0 400 14.8*** 327 24.5*** 257 24.9***
Chronic cough 1130 4.6 1039 5.0 482 5.6 387 4.1 261 3.4 423 4.0 345 5.2 271 6.3
Phlegm with colds 1053 32.2 983 32.3 456 33.3 358 29.9 239 33.5 402 30.6 322 31.4 259 36.3
Phlegm without colds 1092 6.0 999 5.7 467 5.6** 374 4.0** 251 10.0** 412 3.2*** 324 5.2*** 263 10.3***
Sneeze with itchy-watery eyes 1098 29.9# 1019 26.2# 473 34.5* 378 25.4* 247 27.9* 412 29.9# 341 25.2# 266 21.8#
Respiratory diseases                 
Current asthma 1137 3.2 1056 2.1 484 3.1 391 2.6 262 4.2 424 2.1 354 1.7 278 2.5
Life-time asthma 1137 7.7 1056 6.5 484 7.4 391 7.2 262 8.8 424 6.6 354 5.9 278 7.2
Current bronchitis 1137 11.8 1056 10.6 484 12.8 391 9.7 262 13.0 424 10.1 354 10.5 278 11.5
Life-time bronchitis 1137 20.5 1056 19.4 484 23.8* 391 16.9* 262 19.8* 424 21.5 354 17.2 278 19.1
Current allergic rhinitis 1137 32.7** 1056 26.5** 484 36.8** 391 26.6** 262 34.4** 424 33.3*** 354 18.4*** 278 26.6***
Life-time allergic rhinitis 1137 37.6** 1056 31.7** 484 41.9* 391 32.0* 262 38.2* 424 38.4*** 354 22.9*** 278 32.7***
  1. LPD: low-pollution district; MPD: moderate-pollution district; HPD: high-pollution district.
  2. #P < 0.10; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.