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Table 4 Prevalence of serum 25(OH)D levels < 50 and <75 nmol/l, and adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) in males

From: Vitamin D levels in an Australian population

  <50 nmol/l <75 nmol/l
Variables n Prevalence Odds ratio n Prevalence Odds ratio
Overall 215 18.5   692 59.5  
Age (years)       
24-34 years 54 21.4 1.00 147 58.5 1.00
35-44 years 41 16.0 0.73 (0.32-1.68) 157 61.8 1.20 (0.59-2.47)
45-54 years 45 18.8 0.75 (0.34-1.64) 155 64.5 1.27 (0.62-2.59)
55-64 years 33 17.6 0.58 (0.25-1.35) 110 58.3 0.89 (0.43-1.82)
65-74 years 16 12.8 0.37 (0.14-0.95) 64 52.6 0.80 (0.38-1.68)
75 years and over 26 24.4 0.85 (0.32-2.27) 59 54.8 0.90 (0.41-1.99)
BMI*       
Underweight/normal 40 15.3 1.00 141 54.2 1.00
Overweight 84 15.7 1.12 (0.60-2.12) 304 56.9 1.17 (0.74-1.83)
Obese 91 24.6 2.21 (1.19-4.11) 247 66.8 1.72 (1.05-2.80)
Country of birth*       
Australia 135 16.0 1.00 496 58.4 1.00
Other country 79 25.0 1.93 (1.22-3.05) 196 62.2 1.38 (0.95-2.01)
Season       
Summer 18 8.2 1.00 96 44.4 1.00
Autumn 32 11.7 1.75 (0.62-4.91) 136 49.0 1.37 (0.78-2.39)
Winter 90 26.0 4.55 (1.66-12.44) 225 65.2 2.76 (1.52-5.02)
Spring 75 23.1 4.08 (1.51-10.98) 235 72.3 3.90 (2.23-6.80)
Income       
Up to $60,000 96 20.8 1.00 261 56.4 1.00
More than $60,000 99 16.4 0.75 (0.43-1.30) 382 63.3 1.22 (0.81-1.84)
Don’t know/not stated 20 20.2 0.60 (0.23-1.57) 50 50.5 0.56 (0.23-1.37)
Education       
Some schooling 52 17.7 1.00 168 56.9 1.00
Completed high school 12 10.0 0.42 (0.16-1.08) 77 63.4 1.14 (0.61-2.14)
Apprentice/diploma 77 16.4 1.03 (0.63-1.70) 257 54.7 0.89 (0.60-1.33)
University or higher education 61 25.3 2.27 (1.17-4.37) 165 68.5 1.93 (1.03-3.62)
Refused/not stated 13 34.2 8.96 (1.21-66.45) 25 67.4 39.21 (3.09-496.76)
Smoking status       
Non/ex 167 17.9 1.00 554 59.1 1.00
Current 46 21.5 1.35 (0.76-2.39) 131 61.8 1.38 (0.82-2.33)
Not stated 2 13.1 0.93 (0.17-4.98) 7 46.9 0.92 (0.22-3.87)
Physical activity       
No activity 39 22.4 1.00 113 64.0 1.00
Insufficient activity 69 21.0 0.95 (0.55-1.63) 221 67.0 1.06 (0.66-1.71)
Sufficient activity 93 15.1 0.53 (0.31-0.90) 333 54.1 0.59 (0.38-0.91)
Not stated 13 30.6 0.20 (0.04-1.14) 25 60.4 0.05 (0.01-0.43)
Vitamin D supplement       
Took vitamin D 2 10.7 1.00 10 42.9 1.00
Took supplements but not vitamin D 43 14.8 2.13 (0.49-9.20) 182 62.7 2.88 (1.11-7.51)
Did not take supplements/not stated 170 19.9 2.93 (0.70-12.33) 500 58.8 2.17 (0.87-5.42)
  1. *Not stated category not reported n ≤ 10. The weighting of data can lead to rounding discrepancies and totals not adding.
  2. Adjusted for age group, BMI categories, country of birth, season, income, education, smoking status, activity level, vitamin D supplement status.