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Table 1 Effect of community based interventions on the coverage of commodities/services for diarrhea and pneumonia

From: Effect of community based interventions on childhood diarrhea and pneumonia: uptake of treatment modalities and impact on mortality

  Quality Assessment Summary of Findings
  Directness No of events  
No of studies Design Limitations Consistency Generalizability to population of interest Generalizability to intervention of interest Intervention Control Relative Risk (95% CI)
Care seeking rates for Pneumonia: moderate outcome specific quality of evidence
Two RCT/Quasi No significant heterogeneity so a fixed effect model used Both studies suggest benefit One study from Asia and one from Africa WHO case management by local health workers 344 327 1.13 [1.08, 1.18]
Care seeking rates for Diarrhea: moderate outcome specific quality of evidence
Four CRCT Significant heterogeneity so a random effect model used Two studies show benefit All studies from South Asia Promotion of use of ORS and zinc by CHWs 3562 4691 1.09 [1.06, 1.12]
ORS use for the management of diarrhea: moderate/low outcome specific quality of evidence
Six RCT/Quasi Significant heterogeneity so a random effect model used All the studies suggest benefit All studies are from Asia All the studies had community education while four studies had combined intervention of promotion and zinc therapy and two had free distribution of ORS 10446 3990 2.60 [1.59, 4.27]
Two Before/After No major limitation All the studies suggest benefit Both studies were from Africa One study had combined intervention of promotion of zinc therapy 143 86 1.75 [1.48, 2.07]
Use of zinc for the management of diarrhea: moderate outcome specific quality of evidence
Four cRCT Significant heterogeneity across studies so a random effect model used All Studies suggest benefit All studies from South Asia CHWs provided education and promoted use of ORS and zinc 5554 14 29.79 [12.33, 71.97]
Antibiotic Use for Diarrhea: moderate outcome specific quality of evidence
Four cRCT Significant heterogeneity across studies so a random effect model used All studies suggested a decline in the use of antibiotics All studies from South Asia CHWs provided education and promoted use of ORS and zinc 639 3083 0.25 [0.12, 0.51]
One Before/After   Decline in the use of antibiotics Study conducted in Mali CHWs provided education and promoted use of ORS and zinc 104 130 0.83 [0.69, 0.99]
Antibiotic Use for Pneumonia: moderate outcome specific quality of evidence
One Quasi    Study Conducted in Uganda WHO case management by local health workers 187 319 1.13 [0.99, 1.30]
Treatment Failure Rates for ARI/Pneumonia: moderate outcome specific quality of evidence
Two cRCT No significant heterogeneity so a fixed effect model used Both studies suggest benefit One study from Asia and one from Africa WHO case management by local health workers 228 314 0.60 [0.51, 0.70]