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Table 4 Summary of the type and quality of evidence for mortality outcomes

From: Time to initiation of breastfeeding and neonatal mortality and morbidity: a systematic review

No of Studies Design Mortality outcome* Consistency Generalizability (location) Relative Risk (95% CI) Grade Comments
3 prospective cohort studies All causes, among all live births marginal heterogeneity from meta analysis (p=0.076); all studies show a benefit South Asia, West Africa 0.56 (0.40 – 0.79)   Random effects meta analysis
3 prospective cohort studies All causes, among low birth weight babies Q test for heterogeneity from meta analysis (p=0.585); two of three studies show a benefit South Asia, West Africa 0.58(0.43 – 0.78)   Random effects meta analysis
3 prospective cohort studies Infection-related causes, among all live births Q test for heterogeneity from meta analysis (p=0.134); one of three studies shows a benefit South Asia, West Africa 0.55 (0.36 – 0.84)   Random effects meta analysis
3 prospective cohort studies Sepsis-specific mortality, among all live births Q test for heterogeneity from meta analysis (p=0.138); all studies show a benefit South Asia, West Africa 0.42 (0.23 – 0.74)   Random effects meta analysis
3 prospective cohort studies Birth asphyxia-specific mortality, among all live births Q test for heterogeneity from meta analysis (p=0.887); zero of three studies show a benefit South Asia, West Africa 0.50 (0.23 – 1.12)   Random effects meta analysis
2 prospective cohort studies Prematurity-specific mortality, among all live births Q test for heterogeneity from meta analysis (p=0.418); one of two studies show a benefit South Asia, West Africa 0.56 (0.30, 1.02)   Random effects meta analysis