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Table 2 The effect of suboptimal breastfeeding on selected outcomes during infancy

From: Breastfeeding for reducing the risk of pneumonia morbidity and mortality in children under two: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

   0-5 months* 0-11 months*
Outcome Reference Category Predominant Partial Not Partial Not
Pneumonia Incidence Exclusive 1.79 (1.29-2.48)[27] 2.48 (0.23-27.15)[27] 2.07 (0.19-22.64)[27] - -
Pneumonia Prevalence Exclusive 1.13 (0.25-5.16)[18] 5.45 (1.35-21.97)[18] 5.61 (1.23-25.53)[18] - -
  Predominant   4.81 (2.54-9.14)[18] 4.96 (2.07-11.88)[18]   
  Partial    1.03 (0.54-1.95)[18]   
Pneumonia Mortality Exclusive 1.66 (0.53-5.23)[19, 20] 2.50 (1.03-6.04)[19, 20] 14.97 (0.67-332.74)[19, 20]   
  Predominant   1.37 (0.50-3.78)[20] 13.0 (4.03-42.02)[20] 1.40 (0.91-2.15)[21, 22] 2.11 (1.50-2.96)[21, 22]
  Partial    9.47 (2.85-31.47)[20]   1.31 (0.9-1.9)[22]
All-Cause Mortality Exclusive 1.48 (1.14-1.92)[19, 20, 25] 2.84 (1.63-4.97)[19, 20, 25] 14.40 (6.13-33.86)[19, 20] - -
  Predominant   1.69 (1.10-2.61)[20] 8.08 (4.45-14.69)[20]   
  Partial    4.77 (2.65-8.61)[20]   
Pneumonia Hospitalization Exclusive 1.49 (0.80-2.79)[20] 1.54 (0.80-2.98)[20] 4.06 (1.48-11.14)[20]   
  Predominant   1.04 (0.66-1.62)[20] 2.72 (1.12-6.61)[20] 3.44 (1.60-7.37)[26] 8.99 (4.59-17.59)[26]
  Partial    2.63 (1.06-6.53)[20]   2.62 (1.69-4.04)[26]
  Any      4.32 (2.95-6.33)[26]
All-Cause Hospitalization Exclusive 1.98 (1.25-3.12)[20] 1.88 (1.16-3.04)[20] 6.03 (3.18-11.44)[20] - -
  Predominant   0.95 (0.71-1.28)[20] 3.05 (1.82-5.11)[20]   
  Partial    3.21 (1.88-5.49)[20]   
  1. *Effect reported as RR (95% CI)