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Table 3 Associations between psychological distress, interest in dietary pattern and social capital*

From: Interest in dietary pattern, social capital, and psychological distress: a cross-sectional study in a rural Japanese community

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
  OR(95%CI) p OR(95%CI) p OR(95%CI) p OR(95%CI) p OR(95%CI) p
(1) Interest in dietary pattern  
Yes Ref   - - Ref   Ref   Ref  
No 2.14(1.65-2.76) <0.01 - - 2.31(1.80-2.98) <0.01 2.75(2.16-3.50) <0.01 2.18(1.69-2.81) <0.01
(2) Frequency of intake of vegetables
None 1.81(1.28-2.55) <0.01 2.23(1.61-3.08) <0.01 - - 2.20(1.60-3.03) <0.01 1.98(1.42-2.76) <0.01
One time 1.06(0.76-1.47) NS 1.22(0.89-1.68) NS - - 1.37(1.01-1.87) <0.05 1.13(0.82-1.55) NS
Two times 1.14(0.87-1.50) NS 1.20(0.92-1.57) NS - - 1.22(0.94-1.58) NS 1.18(0.90-1.54) NS
Three times Ref   Ref     Ref   Ref  
(3) Social capital
Reciprocity
Always Ref   Ref   Ref     Ref  
Often 1.38(0.96-1.95) 0.05 1.41(1.01-2.02) 0.05 1.39(1.00-1.93) <0.05 - - 1.38(1.00-1.92) <0.05
Rarely 1.90(1.28-2.83) <0.01 1.92(1.29-2.85) <0.01 1.91(1.28-2.84) <0.01 - - 1.89(1.27-2.81) <0.01
Never 3.51(2.13-5.78) <0.01 3.71(2.25-6.09) <0.01 3.46(2.10-5.71) <0.01 - - 3.46(2.10-5.71) <0.01
  p for trend < 0.01   p for trednd <0.01       p for trend < 0.01  
Sense of community belonging           
Always Ref   Ref   Ref   - - Ref  
Often 1.37(0.96-1.95) 0.08 1.42(1.15-2.02) 0.05 1.43(1.01-2.04) <0.05 - - 1.40(1.00-1.99) <0.05
Rarely 3.71(2.51-5.51) <0.01 4.11(2.79-6.05) <0.01 3.99(2.71-5.87) <0.01 - - 3.88(2.63-5.73) <0.01
Never 7.00(4.35-11.25) <0.01 8.09(5.07-12.91) <0.01 7.60(4.76-12.20) <0.01 - - 7.42(4.64-11.87) <0.01
  p for trend < 0.01   p for trednd <0.01       p for trend < 0.01  
  1. *The association between psychological distress, interest in dietary pattern, frequency of intake of vegetables, and social capital were analysed by using five logistic models.
  2. Model 1: Without adjustment.
  3. Model 2: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of community residents (age, sex, marital status, living alone, and educational background). A variable of interest in dietary pattern was excluded in the model.
  4. Model 3: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of community residents (age, sex, marital status, living alone, and educational background). A variable of frequency of intake of vegetables was excluded in the model.
  5. Model 4: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of community residents (age, sex, marital status, living alone, and educational background). Two variables of social capital (reciprocity and sense of community belonging) were excluded in the model.
  6. Model 5: Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of community residents (age, sex, marital status, living alone, and educational background). Variables of interest in dietary pattern, frequency of intake of vegetables, reciprocity and sense of community belonging were included in the model.
  7. OR = odds ratio, CI = confidence interval.