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Table 3 Associations between child and maternal characteristics and maternal overestimation of their child's physical activity level (n = 438)

From: Maternal awareness of young children’s physical activity: levels and cross-sectional correlates of overestimation

Variable Unadjusted RR Adjusted RR
(95% CI) (95% CI)
Child characteristics   
Sex (ref: Male) 1.17 (0.93, 1.47)  
Age (in years) 0.74 (0.12, 4.64)  
BMI z-score 1.05 (0.93, 1.18)  
Has an older sibling living at home (ref: no older sibling) 0.73 (0.57, 0.93)* 0.71 (0.56, 0.90)**
Has a younger sibling living at home (ref: no younger sibling) 1.08 (0.86, 1.37)  
Attends nursery (ref: part-time)   
Full-time 1.54 (1.13, 2.10)* 1.53 (1.14, 2.04)**
Maternal characteristics   
Age (in years) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03)  
BMI (kgm-2) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)  
Age leaving full-time education (ref: 16 or younger)   
17 or 18 years 1.19 (0.91, 1.57)  
19 years or older 1.00 (0.74, 1.36)  
Physical activity level (ref: Inactive)   
Moderately inactive 0.94 (0.68, 1.30)  
Moderately active 1.09 (0.77, 1.55)  
Active 0.74 (0.48, 1.12)  
Maternal perception   
Child is outgoing (ref: Strongly/disagree/neither)   
Strongly/agree 0.93 (0.72, 1.21)  
Child is restless (ref: Strongly disagree/disagree/neither)   
Strongly/agree 0.85 (0.68, 1.09)  
Child is well behaved (ref: disagree/neither)   
Strongly/agree 1.42 (1.03, 1.97)*  
Child enjoys PA (ref: Disagree/neither)   
Strongly/agree 0.92 (0.73, 1.17)  
PA is important (ref: Disagree/neither)   
Strongly/agree 1.04 (0.81, 1.35)  
Physical activity is limited because:   
Child is not interested in physical activity (ref: never)   
Rarely/sometimes/often/very often 1.02 (0.81, 1.28)  
Child doesn’t have the skills (ref: never)   
Rarely/sometimes/often/very often 1.31 (1.04, 1.64)* 1.29 (1.03, 1.63)*
  1. RR, rate ratio; CI, confidence interval; ref, reference category; BMI, Body Mass Index; PA, Physical Activity. Model 2: Adjusted for nursery attendance, older sibling at home and maternal perception of physical activity skills. *p ≤ 0.05; **p < 0.005.