Skip to main content

Table 2 Pathway analysis of the association between daughters’ circumcision status and several hypothesized variables

From: Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt

  Daughter circumcised
  (1) Base model (2) Add SES (3) Add FGC messaging exposure (4) Add empowerment (5) Add cluster FE
Mother characteristics      
Year of birth 0.997 0.997 0.997 0.997 1.001
  (0.980–1.015) (0.979–1.014) (0.980–1.014) (0.980–1.015) (0.982–1.020)
Circumcised 63.388** 54.850** 57.473** 57.382** 16.206**
  (33.478–120.021) (28.868–104.219) (30.166–109.501) (30.103–109.380) (8.295–31.662)
Age at first marriage 0.937** 0.969** 0.969** 0.970** 0.963**
  (0.918–0.956) (0.948–0.990) (0.949–0.990) (0.949–0.991) (0.940–0.986)
Age difference with husband 0.985* 0.987* 0.988* 0.987* 0.986*
  (0.974–0.997) (0.976–0.999) (0.976–0.999) (0.976–0.999) (0.973–0.998)
Number of Children 1.018 1.006 1.005 1.003 0.999
  (0.974–1.063) (0.963–1.051) (0.962–1.050) (0.960–1.048) (0.953–1.048)
Muslim 5.344** 5.416** 5.422** 5.371** 6.044**
  (4.022–7.099) (4.071–7.206) (4.075–7.215) (4.037–7.145) (4.361–8.379)
Daughter characteristics      
Birth order (relative to 4th or higher)      
First born 0.824 0.885 0.880 0.874 0.903
  (0.656–1.036) (0.703–1.115) (0.699–1.107) (0.694–1.101) (0.704–1.157)
Second born 0.946 1.012 1.008 1.007 1.049
  (0.776–1.153) (0.829–1.236) (0.826–1.231) (0.825–1.229) (0.846–1.301)
Third born 0.914 0.952 0.952 0.950 0.972
  (0.770–1.086) (0.800–1.132) (0.800–1.132) (0.799–1.131) (0.807–1.170)
Household characteristics      
Household size (relative to Household size: 2 to 4)  
Household size: 5 to 7 0.943 0.995 0.998 1.000 1.127
  (0.700–1.269) (0.738–1.342) (0.740–1.346) (0.741–1.350) (0.813–1.563)
Household size: 8 to 10 1.008 1.080 1.082 1.087 1.106
  (0.819–1.239) (0.877–1.329) (0.879–1.331) (0.882–1.338) (0.880–1.389)
Household size: 11+ 1.089 1.114 1.112 1.116 1.112
  (0.878–1.350) (0.898–1.382) (0.896–1.379) (0.899–1.385) (0.878–1.408)
SES      
Wealth quintile 1   0.728** 0.719** 0.705** 0.779*
   (0.607–0.873) (0.599–0.863) (0.587–0.847) (0.636–0.953)
Wealth quintile 2   1.023 1.023 1.015 1.000
   (0.861–1.216) (0.861–1.216) (0.853–1.206) (0.827–1.210)
Wealth quintile 4   0.692** 0.695** 0.701** 0.758**
   (0.575–0.834) (0.577–0.837) (0.582–0.844) (0.619–0.930)
Wealth quintile 5   0.449** 0.450** 0.457** 0.548**
   (0.359–0.562) (0.360–0.563) (0.365–0.572) (0.423–0.709)
Mother works   0.662** 0.663** 0.662** 0.735**
   (0.579–0.757) (0.579–0.758) (0.578–0.757) (0.636–0.850)
Mother completed primary   0.836* 0.842 0.854 0.692**
   (0.700–0.999) (0.705–1.005) (0.715–1.021) (0.568–0.842)
Mother completed secondary or more   0.546** 0.552** 0.567** 0.591**
   (0.452–0.660) (0.456–0.667) (0.468–0.687) (0.480–0.728)
Father completed primary   1.072 1.077 1.077 1.018
   (0.915–1.256) (0.919–1.262) (0.919–1.261) (0.858–1.208)
Father completed secondary or more   1.111 1.121 1.132 1.038
   (0.945–1.307) (0.953–1.318) (0.962–1.331) (0.868–1.242)
Anti-FGC Messaging      
Exposed to 1 or more messages    0.828** 0.838** 0.872
    (0.725–0.944) (0.734–0.957) (0.753–1.010)
Empowerment Indexes      
PCA of household decisions     0.999 1.014
     (0.959–1.040) (0.970–1.060)
PCA of tolerance of domestic violence     1.042* 1.028
     (1.006–1.079) (0.989–1.067)
Daughter YOB & Wave FE YES YES YES YES YES
Urban FE YES YES YES YES NO
Region FE (5 units) YES YES YES YES NO
Cluster RE YES YES YES YES NO
Cluster FE NO NO NO NO YES
Observations 17579 17579 17579 17579 13755
Number of Clusters 2551 2551 2551 2551 1714
  1. Note: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals presented. ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05.