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Table 3 Spontaneous adaptation behaviors to heat waves in vulnerable populations with different demographic characteristics

From: Associations between risk perception, spontaneous adaptation behavior to heat waves and heatstroke in Guangdong province, China

  Open window χ 2 P Drink more water χ 2 P Wear light clothes χ 2 P Bathe frequently χ 2 P Stay in house χ 2 P
No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Gender    1.08 0.298    0.15 0.699    5.13 0.024    0.70 0.404    8.95 0.003
 Male 321(27.6) 844(72.4) 148(12.7) 1017(87.3) 681(58.5) 484(51.5) 748(64.2) 417(35.8) 513(44.0) 652(56.0)
 Female 301(29.6) 717(70.4) 135(13.3) 883(86.7) 546(53.6) 472(46.4) 671(65.9) 347(34.1) 384(37.7) 634(62.3)
Age (years)    12.26 0.031    4.60 0.467    17.28 0.004    8.61 0.126    4.84 0.436
 <20 64(36.0) 114(64.0) 22(12.4) 156(87.6) 102(57.3) 76(42.7) 108(60.7) 70(39.3) 81(45.5) 97(54.5)
 20–29 135(31.4) 295(68.6) 57(13.3) 373(86.7) 233(54.2) 197(45.8) 291(67.7) 139(32.3) 184(42.8) 246(57.2)
 30–39 138(26.1) 391(73.9) 68(12.9) 461(87.1) 295(55.8) 234(44.2) 355(67.1) 174(32.9) 223(42.2) 306(57.8)
 40–49 145(28.3) 367(71.7) 58(11.3) 454(88.7) 264(51.6) 248(48.4) 316(61.7) 196(38.3) 194(37.9) 318(62.1)
 50–59 73(23.5) 238(76.5) 40(12.9) 271(87.1) 183(58.8) 128(41.2) 195(62.7) 116(37.3) 122(39.2) 189(60.8)
 ≥60 67(30.0) 156(70.0) 38(17.0) 185(83.0) 150(67.3) 73(32.7) 154(69.1) 69(30.9) 93(41.7) 130(58.3)
Education    18.25 0.001    16.29 0.003    151.18 <0.001    20.65 <0.001    2.96 0.565
 Elementary school or lower 164(31.5) 356(68.5) 82(15.8) 438(84.2) 368(70.8) 152(29.2) 371(71.3) 149(28.7) 215(41.3) 305(58.7)
 Junior middle school 227(32.2) 477(67.8) 99(14.1) 605(85.9) 442(62.8) 262(37.2) 440(62.5) 264(37.5) 275(39.1) 429(60.9)
 Senior middle school or vocational secondary school 134(25.8) 386(74.2) 58(11.2) 462(88.8) 256(49.2) 264(50.8) 309(59.4) 211(40.6) 224(43.1) 296(56.9)
 College or above 81(21.6) 294(78.4) 31(8.3) 344(91.7) 123(32.8) 252(67.2) 258(68.8) 117(31.2) 153(40.8) 222(59.2)
 Didn’t answer 16(25.0) 48(75.0) 13(20.3) 51(79.7) 38(59.4) 26(40.6) 41(64.1) 23(35.9) 30(46.9) 34(53.1)
Occupation    27.77 <0.001    17.76 0.007    138.49 <0.001    36.12 <0.001    6.70 0.350
 Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry or fishing 176(34.7) 331(65.3) 72(14.2) 435(85.8) 367(72.4) 140(27.6) 377(74.4) 130(25.6) 213(42.0) 294(58.0)
 Person in service trade 96(21.4) 352(78.6) 49(10.9) 399(89.1) 214(47.8) 234(52.2) 268(59.8) 180(40.2) 180(40.2) 268(59.8)
 Person in charge of institute 39(25.7) 113(74.3) 14(9.2) 138(90.8) 61(40.1) 91(59.9) 106(69.7) 46(30.3) 68(44.7) 84(55.3)
 Technician 58(23.0) 194(77.0) 20(7.9) 232(92.1) 92(36.5) 160(63.5) 165(65.5) 87(34.5) 93(36.9) 159(63.1)
 Military or student 59(33.1) 119(66.9) 23(12.9) 155(87.1) 98(55.1) 80(44.9) 116(65.2) 62(34.8) 85(47.8) 93(52.2)
 Unemployment or retired 74(29.0) 181(71.0) 36(14.1) 219(85.9) 137(53.7) 118(46.3) 162(63.5) 93(36.5) 100(39.2) 155(60.8)
 Other 120(30.7) 271(69.3) 69(17.6) 322(82.4) 258(66.0) 133(34.0) 225(57.5) 166(42.5) 158(40.4) 233(59.6)
Family monthly income per person (yuan) 63.63 <0.001    17.35 0.008    132.85 <0.001    21.14 0.002    15.51 0.017
 < 500 93(32.3) 195(67.7) 40(13.9) 248(86.1) 215(74.7) 73(25.3) 211(73.3) 77(26.7) 118(41.0) 170(59.0)
 500–999 166(43.3) 217(56.7) 67(17.5) 316(82.5) 271(70.8) 112(29.2) 254(66.3) 129(33.7) 146(38.1) 237(61.9)
 1,000–1,999 96(23.3) 316(76.7) 43(10.4) 369(89.6) 200(48.5) 212(51.5) 273(66.3) 139(33.7) 160(38.8) 252(61.2)
 2,000–4,999 112(21.6) 407(78.4) 60(11.6) 459(88.4) 220(42.4) 299(57.6) 326(62.8) 193(37.2) 223(43.0) 296(57.0)
 5,000–9,999 40(23.7) 129(76.3) 20(11.8) 149(88.2) 78(46.2) 91(53.8) 97(57.4) 72(42.6) 62(36.7) 107(63.3)
 ≥10,000 16(24.2) 50(75.8) 2(3.0) 64(97.0) 34(51.5) 32(48.5) 33(50.0) 33(50.0) 20(30.3) 46(69.7)
 Don’t know or refused to answer 99(28.6) 247(71.4) 51(14.7) 295(85.3) 209(60.4) 137(39.6) 225(65.0) 121(35.0) 168(48.6) 178(51.4)
Residential area    15.25 <0.001    2.72 0.099    57.74 <0.001    27.70 <0.001    12.86 <0.001
 Urban 262(24.6) 802(75.4) 125(11.7) 939(88.3) 510(47.9) 554(52.1) 633(59.5) 431(40.5) 396(37.2) 668(62.8)
 Rural 360(32.2) 759(67.8) 158(14.1) 961(85.9) 717(64.1) 402(35.9) 786(70.2) 333(29.8) 501(44.8) 618(55.2)
  Reduce activity χ 2 P Go to a public place with air conditioning χ 2 P Use sunshade or sunhat χ 2 P Rest in the shade χ 2 P Use an air conditioner χ 2 P
  No Yes    No Yes    No Yes    No Yes    No Yes   
  N (%) N (%)    N (%) N (%)    N (%) N (%)    N (%) N (%)    N (%) N (%)   
Gender    0.18 0.671    0.36 0.549    13.85 <0.001    0.73 0.393    0.76 0.385
 Male 648(55.6) 517(44.4) 823(70.6) 342(29.4) 710(60.9) 455(39.1) 403(34.6) 762(65.4) 532(45.7) 633(54.3)
 Female 557(54.7) 461(45.3) 731(71.8) 287(28.2) 540(53.0) 478(47.0) 370(36.3) 648(63.7) 446(43.8) 572(56.2)
Age (years)    0.28 0.998    24.29 <0.001    21.17 0.001    4.95 0.422    113.62 <0.001
 <20 98(55.1) 80(44.9) 120(67.4) 58(32.6) 100(56.2) 78(43.8) 72(40.4) 106(59.6) 101(56.7) 77(43.3)
 20–29 240(55.8) 190(44.2) 288(67.00) 142(33.0) 230(53.5) 200(46.5) 163(37.9) 267(62.1) 163(37.9) 267(62.1)
 30–39 289(54.6) 240(45.4) 364(68.8) 165(31.2) 287(54.3) 242(45.7) 179(33.8) 350(66.2) 172(32.5) 357(67.5)
 40–49 280(54.7) 232(45.3) 361(70.5) 151(29.5) 284(55.5) 228(44.5) 182(35.5) 330(64.5) 216(42.2) 296(57.8)
 50–59 173(55.6) 138(44.4) 237(76.2) 74(23.8) 196(63.0) 115(37.0) 104(33.4) 207(66.6) 178(57.2) 133(42.8)
 ≥60 125(56.1) 98(43.9) 184(82.5) 39(17.5) 153(68.6) 70(31.4) 73(32.7) 150(67.3) 148(66.4) 75(33.6)
Education    4.69 0.321    97.90 <0.001    201.92 <0.001    9.21 0.056    628.21 <0.001
 Elementary school or lower 290(55.8) 230(44.2) 443(85.2) 77(14.8) 400(76.9) 120(23.1) 173(33.3) 347(66.7) 415(79.8) 105(20.2)
 Junior middle school 370(52.6) 334(47.4) 521(74.0) 183(26.0) 435(61.8) 269(38.2) 235(33.4) 469(66.6) 395(56.1) 309(43.9)
 Senior middle school or vocational secondary school 290(55.8) 230(44.2) 329(63.3) 191(36.7) 259(49.8) 261(50.2) 208(40.0) 312(60.0) 125(24.0) 395(76.0)
 College or above 214(57.1) 161(42.9) 222(59.2) 153(40.8) 118(31.5) 257(68.5) 129(34.4) 246(65.6) 18(4.8) 357(95.2)
 Didn’t answer 41(64.1) 23(35.9) 39(60.9) 25(39.1) 38(59.4) 26(40.6) 28(43.8) 36(56.3) 25(39.1) 39(60.9)
Occupation    3.11 0.795    104.31 <0.001    177.78 <0.001    34.59 <0.001    544.60 <0.001
 Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry or fishing 283(55.8) 224(44.2) 430(84.8) 77(15.2) 378(74.6) 129(25.4) 151(29.8) 356(70.2) 414(81.7) 93(18.3)
 Person in service trade 234(52.2) 214(47.8) 286(63.8) 162(36.2) 230(51.3) 218(48.7) 142(31.7) 306(68.3) 131(29.2) 317(70.8)
 Person in charge of institute 86(56.6) 66(43.4) 82(53.9) 70(46.1) 64(42.1) 88(57.9) 55(36.2) 97(63.8) 5(3.3) 147(96.7)
 Technician 143(56.7) 109(43.3) 156(61.9) 96(38.1) 79(31.3) 173(68.7) 97(38.5) 155(61.5) 31(12.3) 221(87.7)
 Military or student 95(53.4) 83(46.6) 113(63.5) 65(36.5) 91(51.1) 87(48.9) 67(37.6) 111(62.4) 81(45.5) 97(54.5)
 Unemployment or retired 148(58.0) 107(42.0) 182(71.4) 73(28.6) 138(54.1) 117(45.9) 79(31.0) 176(69.0) 112(43.9) 143(56.1)
 Other 216(55.2) 175(44.8) 305(78.0) 86(22.0) 270(69.1) 121(30.9) 182(46.5) 209(53.5) 204(52.2) 187(47.8)
Family monthly income per person (yuan) 18.62 0.005    54.29 <0.001    121.82 <0.001    35.49 <0.001    596.77 <0.001
 < 500 149(51.7) 139(48.3) 234(81.3) 54(18.8) 211(73.3) 77(26.7) 64(22.2) 224(77.8) 254(88.2) 34(11.8)
 500–999 187(48.8) 196(51.2) 305(79.6) 78(20.4) 271(70.8) 112(29.2) 137(35.8) 246(64.2) 254(66.3) 129(33.7)
 1,000–1,999 233(56.6) 179(43.4) 272(66.0) 140(34.0) 214(51.9) 198(48.1) 132(32.0) 280(68.0) 125(30.3) 287(69.7)
 2,000–4,999 306(59.0) 213(41.0) 332(64.0) 187(36.0) 223(43.0) 296(57.0) 202(38.9) 317(61.1) 96(18.5) 423(81.5)
 5,000–9,999 89(52.7) 80(47.3) 120(71.0) 49(29.0) 77(45.6) 92(54.4) 65(38.5) 104(61.5) 26(15.4) 143(84.6)
 ≥10,000 30(45.5) 36(54.5) 37(56.1) 29(43.9) 35(53.0) 31(47.0) 26(39.4) 40(60.6) 9(13.6) 57(86.4)
 Don’t know or refused to answer 211(61.0) 135(39.0) 254(73.4) 92(26.6) 219(63.3) 127(36.7) 147(42.5) 199(57.5) 214(61.8) 132(38.2)
Residential area    1.19 0.275    19.27 <0.001    57.04 <0.001    10.53 0.001    404.86 <0.001
 Urban 600(56.4) 464(43.6) 711(66.8) 353(33.2) 522(49.1) 542(50.9) 413(38.8) 651(61.2) 243(22.8) 821(77.2)
 Rural 605(54.1) 514(45.9) 843(75.3) 276(24.7) 728(65.1) 391(34.9) 360(32.2) 759(67.8) 735(65.7) 384(34.3)