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Table 5 Results of three timeliness methods for the identification of the start of the autumn/winter wave of the A (H1N1) influenza pandemic (as reported by the reference data) with syndromic surveillance data in 2009

From: Validity and timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance during the autumn/winter wave of A (H1N1) influenza 2009: results of emergency medical dispatch, ambulance and emergency department data from three European regions

Data source Peak comparison Cross-correlation function First aberration detected by Poisson CUSUM
(weeks) (weeks) (days)
  Without reporting delay+ With reporting delay+
EMD-AT na* not significant 0 -6
EP-AT na* not significant na* na*
EP-BE -1 -1 +10 +2
   0.60   
ED-BE -1 not significant 0 -8
ED-ES +1 +1 +19 (period 1) +11 (period 1)
   0.89 0 (period 2) -8 (period 2)
  1. *na = not applicable.
  2. +reporting delay refers to the time needed for collecting and processing the data.