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Table 1 Overview of the characteristics and handwashing practices of new mothers, Serang, Indonesia (n = 27)

From: The context and practice of handwashing among new mothers in Serang, Indonesia: a formative research study

HW status Age Setting (urban/rural) Education Monthly income (USD) Other household residents No. of children Age of children (range) Main HW facility Occasions when handwashing was observed at least once(W = only water used, S = soap used)
Washer 38 Urban n/a $345-$460 none 3 n/a kitchen sink after returning home (S); after sweeping (S); *food preparation (S); after eating (S) *after baby defecation (bathes baby) (S)
37 Urban high school $690-$805 none 3 15y/2 m kitchen sink after taking out rubbish (S); after laundry (W); *food preparation (S); after eating (S); *after baby defecation (S, also uses wet wipes);*before breastfeeding (S?); after returning home (W)
21 Urban high school $115-$230 father, brother 1 1.5 m bathroom after cleaning bathroom floor (S); after sweeping/taking out rubbish (S); *before eating (S); after eating (S?); before breastfeeding (wet wipes)
22 Urban high school $345-$460 none 1 2 m tap (corner of kitchen) *before handling baby (stops cooking to respond to baby) (S); after eating (S); after rinsing out baby bath (before preparing baby bottle) (W); *before eating(W); other unknown reasons (W)
26 Urban high school $115-$230 none 2 3.5y/21d kitchen sink after laundry (S); *before eating (S); after dishes (W); *after baby defecation (S); *before breastfeeding (W)
33 Urban academic $460-$575 none 3 13y/2 m kitchen sink *before eating (S); *before serving (W)
38 Urban high school $115-$230 none 4 15y/2 m kitchen sink after dishes (S); *before breastfeeding (S)
39 Rural university $920 none 4 12y/13d HW stand bedroom & store in kitchen (carries ladle to wash in sink) after returning home *(then eating) (S); after eating (W); *after baby defecation (S); *before breastfeeding (S)
25 Rural high school $230-$345 parents, brother 1 3 m kitchen sink after laundry (S); *before eating (S); after eating (S); *after baby defecation (S); *before handling baby (after cooking) (W)
Reactive washer 22 Urban high school $230-$345 in-laws 1 4 m bathroom after cooking (chili) (S); after eating (S)
29 Urban junior high $115-$230 none 1 9 m bathroom after cleaning floor (S); after eating (W)
32 Urban academic $460-$575 none 2 7y/17d kitchen (no sink) after sweeping (S); after dusting (W); after laundry & hanging out clothes (W); after wiping table (W); after eating (S?)
35 Urban university $230-$345 none 3 7y/2 m kitchen sink *after baby defecation (W); after returning home (S)
25 Rural high school <$115 none 2 5y/28d store in kitchen after eating (S)
18 Rural junior high <$115 parents 1 28d store in kitchen after eating (S); after washing dishes (W)
Rinser 20 Rural elementary $115-$230 parents, brother, sister 1 28d store in kitchen after eating (W); *after defecating (W - at well, open defecator)
18 Rural junior high <$115 none 1 28d bathroom after moving laundry (W); *(during) food prep (W); after clearing fallen food (W only? too dark to see); after dishes (W); *before serving (W)
Reactive rinser 32 Urban high school $230-$345 yes (unknown) 2 8y/2 m kitchen sink after sweeping (W); after laundry (W)
18 Rural elementary <$115 mother 1 3 m store in kitchen after sweeping (W); after feeding baby puree (W); after eating (W)
Avoider 35 Urban high school $115-$230 mother 2 8y/21d kitchen sink no handwashing observed
23 Urban junior high $115-$230 none 1 3 m kitchen sink no handwashing observed
34 Urban elementary $115-$230 none 3 13y/14d bathroom no handwashing observed
18 Rural elementary $345-$460 parents, sister 1 2 m store in kitchen after eating (W - right hand only)
23 Rural high school <$115 parents 2 7y/45d store in kitchen after clearing dishes (W)
19 Rural elementary <$115 mother-in-law 1 2 m store in kitchen after eating (W)
23 Rural high school <$115 parents, brother 1 28d store in kitchen? after eating (W?)
25 Rural elementary <$115 grandparents, brother 1 28d store in kitchen after serving (W - right hand only)
  1. A "washer" washes hands with soap (at least once) on at least one hand-wash occasion (e.g., after baby defecation, before eating); a "reactive washer" washes hands with soap (at least once) at a non-essential time (e.g., after sweeping); a "rinser" washes hands without soap (at least once) on at least one hand-wash occasion (e.g., after baby defecation, before eating); a "reactive rinser" washes hands without soap (at least once) at a non-essential time (e.g. after sweeping); and an "avoider" does not wash hands at all or only rinses hands after eating.
  2. An asterisk is used to indicate handwashing occasions of public health importance. For the purpose of this study, breastfeeding and handling the baby are considered to be important handwashing occasions.
  3. Note: the 35-year-old woman classified as a dirt washer could also have been classified as a rinser (handwash without soap after baby defecation).