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Table 4 Characteristics of 2139 slum-dwelling women, interviewed at 6 weeks postpartum, who did or did not report physical, emotional or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in the preceding year

From: Intimate partner violence against women during and after pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in Mumbai slums

Dependent variable Did not report IPV (%) Reported IPV (%) OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Socioeconomic quintile       
  1 Poorest 343 (19) 90 (28) 1 ref   1 ref  
  2 347 (19) 76 (24) 0.832 (0.59, 1.18) 0.934 (0.63, 1.37)
  3 376 (21) 53 (17) 0.543 (0.37, 0.80) 0.618 (0.40, 0.95)
  4 384 (21) 64 (17) 0.517 (0.35, 0.76) 0.639 (0.41, 1.00)
  5 Least poor 371 (20) 44 (14) 0.425 (0.28, 0.64) 0.536 (0.33, 0.88)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Family unit       
  Joint 999 (55) 157 (50) 1 ref   1 ref  
  Nuclear 819 (45) 160 (50) 1.239 (0.97, 1.59) 1.021 (0.76, 1.37)
  Total 1818 (100) 317 (100)     
Religion       
  Hindu 878 (48) 142 (45) 1 ref   1 ref  
  Muslim 826 (45) 157 (49) 1.144 (0.85, 1.54) 1.700 (1.22, 2.37)
  Other 117 (6) 19 (6) 1.121 (0.64, 1.95) 1.600 (0.89, 2.86)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Woman’s age       
  <20 y 117 (6) 23 (7) 1 ref   1 ref  
  20-24 y 887 (49) 157 (49) 0.952 (0.58, 1.56) 1.070 (0.61, 1.86)
  25-29 y 575 (32) 98 (31) 0.920 (0.55, 1.54) 0.928 (0.50, 1.72)
  >29 y 242 (13) 40 (13) 0.896 (0.50, 1.60) 0.746 (0.36, 1.53)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Woman’s schooling       
  No schooling 365 (20) 78 (25) 1 ref   1 ref  
  <5 y (primary) 82 (4) 31 (10) 1.755 (1.07, 2.88) 1.563 (0.90, 2.71)
  5-9 y (secondary) 831 (46) 140 (44) 0.782 (0.57, 1.07) 0.923 (0.65, 1.32)
  10 or more y 543 (30) 69 (22) 0.625 (0.43, 0.90) 0.914 (0.59, 1.42)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Woman’s age at marriage       
  <20 y 1094 (60) 216 (65) 1 ref   1 ref  
  20-24 y 625 (34) 89 (28) 0.730 (0.56, 0.96) 0.858 (0.62, 1.18)
  >24 y 102 (6) 13 (4) 0.723 (0.39, 1.33) 0.824 (0.41, 1.68)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Woman’s employment       
  Unemployed 1604 (88) 244 (77) 1 ref   1 ref  
  Employed 217 (12) 74 (23) 2.320 (1.70, 3.17) 2.008 (1.42, 2.83)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Parity       
  1 or 2 1175 (65) 184 (58) 1 ref   1 ref  
  3 or more 646 (35) 134 (42) 1.263 (0.98, 1.62) 1.157 (0.82, 1.62)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Husband’s schooling       
  No schooling 212 (12) 49 (16) 1 ref   1 ref  
  <5 y (primary) 58 (3) 18 (6) 1.298 (0.69, 2.43) 1.375 (0.70, 2.68)
  5-9 y (secondary) 676 (38) 128 (41) 0.838 (0.58, 1.22) 1.067 (0.71, 1.60)
  10 or more y 833 (47) 114 (37) 0.619 (0.42, 0.91) 1.004 (0.64, 1.59)
  Total 1779 (100) 309 (100)     
Husband’s employment       
  Unemployed 18 (1) 7 (2) 1 ref   1 ref  
  Employed 1803 (99) 311 (98) 0.570 (0.23, 1.43) 1.001 (0.37, 2.73)
  Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
Husband drinks alcohol       
  No 1524 (84) 168 (53) 1 ref   1 ref  
  Yes 297 (16) 149 (47) 4.884 (3.71, 6.43) 5.223 (3.88, 7.03)
  Total 1821 (100) 317 (100)     
Infant sex       
  Male 951 (52) 162 (51)    1 ref  
  Female 861 (48) 153 (49) 1.078 (0.84, 1.38) 1.069 (0.82, 1.39)
  Total 1812 (100) 315 (100)     
Previous miscarriage       
  No 1620 (89) 261 (82)     
  Yes 201 (11) 57 (18) 1.666 (1.20, 2.32) 1.759 (1.20, 2.58)
Total 1821 (100) 318 (100)     
  1. OR odds ratio. Ref reference category. ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models with random effect for cluster. Multivariable models included covariates describing socioeconomic status, family unit, religion, woman’s age, schooling, age at marriage, employment, parity, husband’s schooling, employment and alcohol use.