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Table 2 Genital mutilation characteristics of clinically verified mutilated participants (n = 1164)

From: Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city

Characteristic No. (%)
Type of FGM (n = 1164)   
Type I* 1159 (99.6)
Type II** 5 (0.4)
Person performed mutilation (n = 983)   
Traditional birth attendant 713 (72.5)
Traditional circumciser 119 (12.1)
Relative 109 (11.1)
Neighbor 33 (3.4)
Health care providers 9 (0.9)
Age at mutilation (years) (n = 747)   
<4 124 (16.6)
4–7 450 (60.2)
8–11 158 (21.2)
12–15 14 (1.9)
≥16 1 (0.1)
Complications after FGM (n = 1164)   
Short-term complications   
Bleeding 42 (3.6)
Pain 11 (0.9)
Long-term complications   
Reduced libido 20 (1.7)
Psychological 2 (0.2)
No complications 1089 (93.6)
  1. FGM female genital mutilation.
  2. * Type I, partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy).
  3. * Type II, partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision).