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Table 3 Hazard ratios (HR) of death by air pollutants for respiratory cancer cases among Whites from 1992-2008

From: Health effects of air pollution on length of respiratory cancer survival

Air pollutanta Overall death Cancer-specific death
Unadjusted HR Adjusted HRb Unadjusted HR Adjusted HRb
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Honolulu and Los Angeles(n = 58,586)
PM10 Low (< 29.6 μg/m3) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
High (≥ 29.6 μg/m3) 1.41(1.39–1.44) * 1.63(1.58–1.67) * 1.39(1.36–1.42) * 1.56(1.51–1.61) *
Continuous variable (per 10 μg/m3) 1.40(1.37–1.42) * 1.48(1.44–1.52) * 1.37(1.35–1.40) * 1.43(1.39–1.46) *
PM2.5 Low (< 17.6 μg/m3) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
High (≥ 17.6 μg/m3) 1.08(1.05–1.11) * 2.04(1.96–1.12) * 1.07(1.04–1.10) * 1.97(1.89–2.05) *
Continuous variable (per 5 μg/m3) 1.23(1.21–1.25) * 1.57(1.53–1.61) * 1.20(1.18–1.22) * 1.49(1.45–1.53) *
O3 Low (< 0.041 PPM) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
High(≥ 0.041 PPM) 1.07(1.05–1.09) * 1.04(1.01–1.06) * 1.07(1.05–1.10) * 1.04(1.02–1.07) *
Continuous variable (per 10 PPB) 1.08(1.06–1.09) * 1.04(1.03–1.06) * 1.09(1.07–1.11) * 1.06(1.04–1.07) *
Los Angeles (n = 56,193)
PM10 Low (< 29.7 μg/m3) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
High (≥ 29.7 μg/m3) 1.46(1.43–1.49) * 1.77(1.72–1.83) * 1.44(1.41–1.48) * 1.70(1.64–1.76) *
Continuous variable (per 10 μg/m3) 1.51(1.48–1.54) * 1.91(1.85–1.98) * 1.47(1.44–1.50) * 1.79(1.73–1.86) *
PM2.5 Low (< 17.9 μg/m3) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
High (≥ 17.9 μg/m3) 1.09(1.06–1.12) * 2.24(2.15–2.33) * 1.07(1.04–1.10) * 2.13(2.04–2.22) *
Continuous variable (per 5 μg/m3) 1.42(1.39–1.45) * 2.51(2.43–2.59) * 1.35(1.32–1.39) * 2.28(2.20–2.36) *
O3 Low (< 0.041 PPM) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
High(≥ 0.041 PPM) 1.15(1.13–1.17) * 1.12(1.09–1.15) * 1.15(1.13–1.18) * 1.12(1.09–1.15) *
  Continuous variable (per 10 PPB) 1.07(1.05–1.09) * 1.04(1.02–1.06) * 1.09(1.07–1.11) * 1.06(1.04–1.08) *
  1. * Statistically significant at alpha = 0.05.
  2. a High and low levels were categorized using the median concentration of air pollutant.
  3. b Adjusted hazard ratios are adjusted for Age at Diagnoses, Sex, Marital status at diagnoses, Cancer stage, Primary site, and Year diagnosed.