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Table 2 Adjusted and unadjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for respiratory cancer death from 1992–2008 among Whites (n = 58,586)

From: Health effects of air pollution on length of respiratory cancer survival

Characteristics Overall death Cancer-specific death
   Unadjusted HR Adjusted HRa Unadjusted HR Adjusted HRa
   (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Air pollution level b Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  High 1.14(1.08–1.20) * 1.07(1.02–1.13) * 1.15(1.09–1.22) * 1.08(1.02–1.14) *
Age at diagnoses ≤54 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  55–69 1.29(1.25–1.34) * 1.30(1.25–1.35) * 1.21(1.16–1.25) * 1.21(1.16–1.26) *
  70–84 1.72(1.66–1.78) * 1.73(1.67–1.80) * 1.49(1.43–1.54) * 1.49(1.44–1.55) *
  85+ 2.70(2.58–2.83) * 2.57(2.43–2.71) * 2.25(2.14–2.36) * 2.12(2.00–2.25) *
Marital status Unmarried 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Married 0.89(0.86–0.91) * 0.82(0.79–0.85) * 0.91(0.88–0.94) * 0.86(0.83–0.89) *
  Separated/Divorce 1.01(0.97–1.05) 0.97(0.93–1.01) 1.03(0.99–1.07) 0.99(0.95–1.04)
  Widowed 1.26(1.22–1.30) * 1.02(0.98–1.06) 1.23(1.19–1.28) * 1.06(1.01–1.10) *
Sex Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Female 0.97(0.95–0.99) * 0.82(0.81–0.84) * 0.99(0.97–1.01) 0.84(0.82–0.86) *
Cancer stage In situ or Localized 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Regional 1.98(1.91–2.06) * 1.96(1.89–2.03) * 2.54(2.43–2.65) * 2.46(2.36–2.57) *
  Distant 5.26(5.09–5.44) * 5.04(4.87–5.21) * 7.20(6.91–7.49) * 6.64(6.37–6.92) *
Primary site Lung and bronchus 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Nose, nasal cavity and middle ear 0.38(0.34–0.42) * 0.49(0.44–0.55) * 0.32(0.29–0.36) * 0.43(0.38–0.49) *
  Larynx 0.32(0.31–0.34) * 0.54(0.51–0.57) * 0.23(0.21–0.24) * 0.41(0.38–0.44) *
  Others 0.36(0.30–0.42) * 0.38(0.30–0.48) * 0.38(0.31–0.46) * 0.40(0.31–0.52) *
Year diagnosed 2007–2008 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  2002–2006 1.04(1.00–1.09) 1.25(1.20–1.32) * 1.06(1.01–1.11) * 1.09(1.04–1.15) *
  1997–2001 1.04(0.99–1.08) 1.18(1.12–1.24) * 1.04(0.99–1.09) 1.20(1.14–1.26) *
  1992–1996 1.06(1.02–1.11) * 1.25(1.20–1.32) * 1.05(1.00–1.10) 1.27(1.21–1.34) *
  1. *Statistically significant at alpha = 0.05.
  2. a Adjusted hazard ratios are adjusted for Age at Diagnoses, Sex, Marital status at diagnoses, Cancer stage, Primary site, and Year diagnosed.
  3. b Subjects from Los Angeles, CA were defined as high air pollution exposure group while those from Honolulu, HI were defined as low air pollution exposure group.