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Table 1 Prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males aged 18 and above by socio-demographic variables

From: Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

Characteristics Sample Estimated population Percentage of respondents who smoked (%) 95% CI
Ethnicity     
 Malay 8466 3114644 55.9 54.8–57.1
 Chinese 3204 1278693 36.0 34.1–37.9
 Indian 1193 474117 35.0 32.0–38.0
 Other indigenous 1732 576818 53.8 51.2–56.3
 Other 771 275161 55.0 50.6–60.3
Age group (Years)     
 18–20 1192 437649 49.6 46.3–52.9
 21–30 3285 1222328 59.3 57.4–61.2
 31–40 3140 1166894 56.8 55.0–58.6
 41–50 3180 1183816 48.5 46.7–50.3
 51–60 2466 925384 40.8 38.8–42.8
 61 and above 2103 773935 35.0 32.9–37.1
Marital status     
 Single 3807 1414961 54.9 53.0–56.8
 Married 11094 4129478 47.8 46.8–48.8
 Divorce 199 73366 55.2 48.1–62.1
 Widow/widower 191 71425 36.0 29.6–43.0
Education     
 None 956 333280 48.5 45.2–51.8
 Primary 5103 1864393 49.5 48.0–51.0
 Secondary 7531 2824816 53.8 52.5–55.1
 Tertiary 1640 645212 31.4 29.0–33.8
Monthly household income     
 Less than RM 2000 9292 3351605 53.0 49.0–57.0
 RM 2000–2999 2365 907525 47.7 45.6–49.9
 > = RM 3000 3169 1251092 39.2 37.2–41.2
Occupation     
 Senior officer 438 173326 34.5 30.1–39.0
 Professional 1185 464081 32.3 29.6–35.1
 Technical 1794 686112 44.6 42.3–47.0
 Clerical 629 237063 47.8 43.9–51.8
 Service 2950 1119877 52.2 50.3–54.2
 Skilled agriculture and fisheries 2032 690104 58.2 55.8–60.5
 Craft 1050 397210 58.4 55.0–61.6
 Plant and machine operator 1775 666594 56.4 53.9–58.9
 Elementary occupation 1199 424680 64.8 62.0–67.5
 Unemployed 1510 549940 42.0 39.7–44.8
Residential area     
 Urban 8843 3609890 45.2 44.0–46.4
 Rural 6523 2106363 56.9 55.5–58.3