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Table 4 Associations between NO 2 (μg/m 3 ) and socioeconomic indices

From: Relationship between area-level socioeconomic characteristics and outdoor NO2concentrations in rural and urban areas of northern Spain

Land   ρ Wy + SEindexa β+Educationb γ ρ Wy + SEindex β ρ Wy + Education γ
Coeff. SE p Coeff. SE p Coeff. SE p
Urban <50% Intercept 11.01 2.16 <0.001 8.59 1.95 <0.001 6.33 1.72 <0.001
SEindex 1.25–1.34 −2.44 1.51 0.105 −3.22 1.43 0.024    
SEindex 1.35–1.46 −4.89 1.99 0.014 −3.67 1.65 0.026    
SEindex 1.47–1.65 −4.74 1.72 0.006 −3.84 1.39 0.006    
SEindex 1.66–2.05 −9.15 2.25 <0.001 −7.50 2.20 <0.001    
Education 3.04–3.24 −1.25 1.52 0.410     −1.50 1.50 0.318
Education 3.25–3.49 −2.55 1.54 0.098     −3.99 1.35 0.003
Education 3.50–3.82 1.35 1.82 0.456     −1.28 1.51 0.395
Education 3.83–4.26 2.58 1.95 0.186     −0.73 1.69 0.665
   Rho = 0.50 (p-value <0.001) Rho = 0.61 (p-value <0.001) Rho = 0.69 (p-value <0.001)
  Residual I p-value = 0.423 Residual I p-value = 0.098 Residual I p-value = 0.294
  AIC = 395.52 Residual I p-value = 0.098
AIC = 402.50
AIC = 403.83
  (AIC for linear model = 407.44) (AIC for linear model = 422.24) (AIC for linear model = 433.32)
Urban ≥50% Intercept 2.89 2.05 0.160 4.10 1.76 0.020 3.23 2.08 0.121
SEindex 1.25–1.34 1.36 1.09 0.211 1.05 0.80 0.194    
SEindex 1.35–1.46 1.31 1.29 0.310 0.70 0.90 0.438    
SEindex 1.47–1.65 2.04 1.68 0.226 1.90 0.98 0.053    
SEindex 1.66–2.05 0.75 2.47 0.760 0.83 0.85 0.653    
Education 3.04–3.24 2.90 1.63 0.076     3.34 1.66 0.045
Education 3.25–3.49 1.59 1.78 0.371     2.94 1.55 0.059
Education 3.50–3.82 1.20 1.95 0.540     2.78 1.62 0.086
Education 3.83–4.26 2.11 2.30 0.360     4.03 1.68 0.016
   Rho = 0.76 (p-value <0.001) Rho = 0.79 (p-value <0.001) Rho = 0.73 (p-value <0.001)
  Residual I p-value = 0.180 Residual I p-value = 0.705 Residual I p-value = 0.111
  AIC = 346.76 AIC = 342.83 AIC = 340.99
  (AIC for linear model = 387.44) (AIC for linear model = 393.5) (AIC for linear model = 382.99)
All Intercept 4.50 1.32 <0.001 3.92 1.10 <0.001 2.81 1.21 0.020
SEindex 1.25–1.34 −1.76 0.97 0.070 −1.23 0.85 0.152    
SEindex 1.35–1.46 −2.70 1.23 0.029 −1.04 0.97 0.282    
SEindex 1.47–1.65 −3.64 1.18 0.002 −1.56 0.89 0.080    
SEindex 1.66–2.05 −5.49 1.66 0.001 −3.39 1.50 0.024    
Education 3.04–3.24 0.06 1.17 0.960     −0.29 1.17 0.803
Education 3.25–3.49 0.61 1.18 0.608     −0.82 1.04 0.429
Education 3.50–3.82 2.30 1.36 0.090     0.14 1.13 0.899
Education 3.83–4.26 3.59 1.48 0.015     0.49 1.22 0.687
   Rho = 0.83 (p-value <0.001) Rho = 0.87 (p-value <0.001) Rho = 0.88 (p-value <0.001)
  Residual I p-value = 0.611 Residual I p-value = 0.552 Residual I p-value = 0.552
  AIC = 777.53 AIC = 779.59 AIC = 782.96
  (AIC for linear model = 906.94) (AIC for linear model = 929.91) (AIC for linear model = 940.67)
  1. a Reference category 1.04–1.24; b Reference category 2.72–3.03.
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