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Table 2 Factors related to exclusive breastfeeding

From: Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in an urban population of primiparas in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study

  Total N (%) Exclusive breastfeeding p-value
  Yes No
I. Woman socio-demographic characteristics
Age     0.003
  <20 46 (10.3%) 14 (30.4%) 32 (69.6%)  
  20-24 114 (25.4%) 47 (41.2%) 67 (58.8%)  
  25-29 157 (35.0%) 33 (21.0%) 124 (79.0%)  
  30-34 88 (19.6%) 19 (21.6%) 69 (78.4%)  
  ≥ 35 43 (9.6%) 11 (25.6%) 32 (74.4%)  
Education     0.280
  Intermediate and below 130 (29.2%) 41 (31.5%) 89 (68.5 %)  
  Secondary 87 (19.6%) 27 (31.0%) 60 (69.0%)  
  University 228 (51.2%) 56 (24.6%) 172 (75.4%)  
Employed     0.000
  Yes 167 (37.9%) 23 (13.8%) 144 (86.2%)  
  No 274 (62.1%) 98 (35.8%) 176 (64.2%)  
Monthly Household income (Lebanese pounds)    0.019
  < 1 million 180 (39.8%) 60 (33.3%) 120 (66.7%)  
  1-2 millions 162 (35.8%) 44 (27.2%) 118 (72.8%)  
  > 2 millions 110 (24.3%) 20 (18.2%) 90 (81.8%)  
II. Pregnancy and delivery indicators
Planned pregnancy     0.068
  Yes 306 (68.0%) 91 (29.7%) 215 (70.3%)  
  No 144 (32.0%) 31 (21.5%) 113 (78.5%)  
Gestational age     0.036
  Preterm 36 (8.6%) 4 (11.1%) 32 (88.9%)  
  Term 384 (91.4%) 104 (27.1%) 280 (72.9%)  
Mode of delivery     0.016
  Vaginal 240 (53.7%) 78 (32.5%) 162 (67.5%)  
  C-section 207 (46.3%) 46 (22.2%) 161 (77.8%)  
Had a companion at delivery     0.937
  Yes 181 (40.1%) 49 (27.1%) 132 (72.9%)  
  No 270 (59.9%) 74 (27.4%) 196 (72.6%)  
Delivery experience     0.186
As she expected or better 32 (7.1%) 12 (37.5%) 20 (62.5%)  
 Worse than she expected 420 (92.9%) 112 (26.7%) 308 (73.3%)  
Held baby in first 30 min     0.885
  Yes 223 (49.4%) 62 (27.8%) 161 (72.2%)  
  No 228 (50.6%) 62 (27.2%) 166 (72.8%)  
Held baby in first 2 hours     0.385
  Yes 320 (71.0%) 91 (28.4%) 229 (71.6%)  
  No 131 (29.0%) 32 (24.4%) 99 (75.6%)  
Rooming-in most of the time     0. 477
  Yes 257 (57.0%) 74 (28.8%) 183 (71.2%)  
  No 194 (43.0%) 50 (25.8%) 144 (74.2%)  
III. Woman health attitude and behavior
Smoking     0.186
  Ever 157 (35.2%) 37 (23.6%) 120 (76.4%)  
  Never 289 (64.8%) 85 (29.4%) 204 (70.6%)  
Weight gain in pregnancy     0.105
  <= 15 kg 279 (62.1%) 69 (24.7%) 210 (75.3%)  
  >= 16 kg 170 (37.9%) 54 (31.8%) 116 (68.2%)  
Intention to breastfeed exclusively     0.000
  Yes 390 (87.1%) 117 (30.0%) 273 (70.0%)  
  No 58 (12.9%) 4 (6.9%) 54 (93.1%)  
IV. Woman postpartum health
Had a health problem     0.292
  Yes 83 (18.4%) 19 (22.9%) 64 (77.1%)  
  No 367 (81.6%) 105 (28.6%) 262 (71.4%)  
Depressed     0.135
  Yes 152 (33.6%) 35 (23.0%) 117 (77.0%)  
  No 300 (66.4%) 89 (29.7%) 211 (70.3%)  
Anxiety level     0.133
  Below median 235 (52.3%) 72 (30.6%) 163 (69.4%)  
  Above median 214 (47.7%) 52 (24.3%) 162 (75.7%)  
Stress level     0.092
  Below median 226 (50.0%) 70 (31.0%) 156 (69.0%)  
  Above median 226 (50.0%) 54 (23.9%) 172 (76.1%)  
V. Baby characteristics
Had a health problem     0.003
  Yes 130 (28.8%) 23 (17.7%) 107 (82.3%)  
  No 322 (71.2%) 101 (31.4%) 221 (68.6%)  
Baby behavior     0.382
  Easy / normal baby 164 (36.3%) 41 (25.0%) 123 (75.0%)  
  Fussy baby 288 (63.7%) 83 (28.8%) 205 (71.2%)  
VI. Social support
Perceived social support     0.897
  Valuable 294 (65.9%) 81 (27.6%) 213 (72.4%)  
  Not valuable 152 (34.1%) 41 (27.0%) 111 (73.0%)  
Main emotional support     0.012
  Mother 185 (40.9%) 39 (21.1%) 146 (78.9%)  
  Other 267 (59.1%) 85 (31.8%) 182 (68.2%)  
VII. Intervention arms
     0.119
  Video 127 (28.1%) 35 (27.6%) 92 (72.4%)  
  Hotline 121 (26.8%) 41 (33.9%) 80 (66.1%)  
  Both 101 (22.3%) 28 (27.7%) 73 (72.3%)  
  Neither 103 (22.8%) 20 (19.4%) 83 (80.6%)  
  1. * all figures do not add up to original sample size due to missing values.