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Table 3 Association between physical activity overestimation and socio-demographic, clinical and health behaviour characteristics in the ADDITION-Plus cohort, 2003 to 2007

From: Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of physical activity perception in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes: results from a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Category/scale, units Overestimators % (N) Univariable ORb(95% CI) p Multivariable ORc(95% CI) p
Socio-demographic       
Sex 20.7 (33) 1 0.50 1 0.70
  17.7 (47) 0.84 ( 0.51 to 1.39)   0.91 (0.54 to 1.52)  
Age category 42–54.9, years 14.1 (13) 1 0.55 1 0.51
  55–59.9 18.9 (17) 1.41 (0.64 to 3.12)   1.53 (0.69 to 3.43)  
  60–64.9 22.2 (18) 1.72 (0.78 to 3.82)   1. 77 (0.79 to 3.98)  
  65–71 19.7 (32) 1.52 (0.75 to 3.08)   1.37 (0.66 to 2.81)  
Ethnicity      Asian/Black 18.2 (2) 1 0.97   
  Caucasian 18.8 (78) 1.03 (0.21 to 4.97)    
Socio-economic category Managerial/professional 12.9 (22) 1 0.009 1  
  Intermediate 21.1 (22) 1.68 (0.86 to 3.31   1.69 (0.86 to 3.31) 0.009
  Routine/manual 24.8 (36) 2.24 (1.21 to 4.12)   2.24 (1.22 to 4.12)  
Clinical       
BMI kg/m2 32.6 (4.7)a 1.023 (0.98 to 1.07) 0.33   
Waist Circumference cm 109.7 (11.0)a 1.01 (0.99 to 1.02) 0.51   
Health behaviours       
Smoking status    Current 22.4 (13) 1 0.35   
  Former 15.8 (33) 0.66 (0.32 to 1.38)    
  Never 21.1 (33) 0.95 (0.45 to 1.99)    
Alcohol consumption Units · week-1 7.6 (9.4)a 1.00 (0.98 to 1.03) 0.89   
Dietary intake  Total energy, Kcal · day-1 1727 (484)a 1.00 (0.99 to 1.01) 0.29   
  Fat, g · day-1 59 (22)a 0.99 (0.98 to 1.01) 0.76   
  Fruit, g · day-1 341 (224)a 1.00 (0.99 to 1.01) 0.23   
  Vegetables, g · day-1 255 (139)a 1.00 (0.99 to 1.00) 0.54   
Quality of life and well being      
EuroQol EQ-5D scale, –0.3 to 1d 0.85 (0.2)a 1.55 (0.45 to 5.32) 0.48   
ADDQoL scale, –9 to 9e 0.70 (1.0)a 0.87 (0.68 to 1.12) 0.27   
SF-36 general health scale, 1 to 5f 2.9 (0.9)a 1.10 (0.83 to 1.46) 0.50   
Diabetes treatment satisfaction scale, 0 to 36g 30.4 (5.5)a 1.01 (0.97 to 1.07) 0.51   
Psychological       
Intention scale, 1 to 5h 3.6 (0.9)a 1.31 (0.95 to 1.82) 0.10   
Perceived behavioural control scale, 1 to 5h 3.6 (0.8)a 1.09 (0.81 to 1.46) 0.58   
  1. a Mean characteristic of overestimators (SD).
  2. b Adjusted for age, sex and trial arm.
  3. c Adjusted for age, sex, trial arm and socio-economic category (occupation).
  4. d Weighted health state index, where dead = 0 and full health = 1.
  5. e Weighted impact of diabetes index, where −9 = maximum negative and +9 = maximum positive diabetes impact.
  6. f General health utility scale ranging from 1 = excellent to 5 = poor.
  7. g Diabetes treatment satisfaction scale, where 0 = very dissatisfied and 36 = very satisfied.
  8. h 5-point Likert-type agree/disagree scale, where 5 represents highest behaviour change beliefs.