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Table 4 Percentage distribution of colorectal cancer screening by domains of health belief model among men and women in Singapore

From: Gender differences in predictors of colorectal cancer screening uptake: a national cross sectional study based on the health belief model

Statement Men P value Women P value
  (Screened for CRC)*   (Screened for CRC)*  
  n = 693   n = 1050  
  n   (%) n (%)  
Susceptibility       
Worry sometimes/always about getting CRC       
Yes 71 (35.3) 0.014 103 (31.4) 0.002
No 130 (26.0)   170 (22.7)  
Some or high chance of developing CRC       
Yes 83 (30.2) 0.478 98 (28.0) 0.161
No 118 (27.7)   175 (24.0)  
Fated I will get CRC       
Yes 129 (26.0) 0.659 79 (26.0) 0.169
No 144 (24.8)   122 (30.7)  
Can prevent myself from getting CRC       
Yes 152 (32.5) 0.002 171 (25.5) 0.848
No 49 (21.0)   102 (25.0)  
Seriousness       
CRC leads to suffering       
Agree 186 (29.2) 0.295 237 (24.6) 0.134
Disagree 15 (23.1)   36 (31.0)  
CRC leads to death       
Agree 176 (29.1) 0.496 219 (24.3) 0.083
Disagree 25 (25.8)   54 (30.5)  
CRC affects my family       
Agree 176 (30.0) 0.072 235 (25.6) 0.620
Disagree 25 (21.7)   38 (23.8)  
CRC affects my social life       
Agree 180 (29.9) 0.076 229 (25.1) 0.630
Disagree 21 (21.2)   44 (26.8)  
CRC is expensive to treat       
Agree 161 (28.2) 0.601 228 (25.1) 0.672
Disagree 40 (30.5)   45 (26.6)  
Benefit       
CRC screening helps detect cancer early       
Yes 186 (29.5) 0.158 249 (26.4) 0.028
No 15 (21.4)   24 (17.6)  
Cues       
Attended public talk on CRC       
Yes 17 (34.7) 0.334 40 (38.8) 0.001
No 184 (28.2)   233 (23.9)  
Heard about CRC from TV/newspapers       
Yes 156 (30.9) 0.632 218 (26.8) 0.001
No 45 (28.7)   55 (20.8)  
Heard of friends/relatives with CRC       
Yes 88 (32.4) 0.086 139 (30.1) 0.002
No 113 (26.3)   134 (21.8)  
Doctor recommended CRC screening to me       
Yes 78 (53.3) <0.001 109 (41.4) <0.001
No 123 (22.0)   164 (20.1)  
Friends told me to go for CRC screening       
Yes 38 (46.9) <0.001 69 (35.9) <0.001
No 163 (26.3)   204 (23.0)  
Family told me to go for CRC screening       
Yes 47 (43.9) <0.001 80 (34.5) <0.001
No 154 (25.9)   193 (22.8)  
Family history of colorectal cancer       
Yes 10 (27.8) 0.899 31 (44.3) 0.004
No 191 (28.8)   243 (24.1)  
Barriers       
Im afraid to find out if I have CRC       
Disagree 133 (32.6) 0.007 145 (29.0) 0.01
Agree 68 (23.2)   128 (22.1)  
Id rather not know if I had CRC       
Disagree 137 (32.2) 0.01 173 (27.8) 0.028
Agree 64 (23.2)   100 (21.9)  
Colonoscopy is dangerous       
Disagree 136 (33.9) <0.001 174 (31.4) <0.001
Agree 65 (21.7)   99 (18.9)  
Colonoscopy is painful       
Disagree 106 (44.5) <0.001 106 (37.9) <0.001
Agree 95 (20.5)   167 (20.9)  
Colonoscopy is embarrassing       
Disagree 154 (33.6) <0.001 175 (28.8) <0.001
Agree 47 (19.3)   98 (20.9)  
Screening is expensive       
Disagree 49 (39.2) 0.004 62 (36.3) <0.001
Agree 152 (26.4)   211 (23.3)  
Inconvenient to see doctor for CRC screening       
Disagree 135 (32.0) 0.017 163 (28.2) 0.01
Agree 66 (23.7)   110 (22.0)  
  1. *Excludes missing values.