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Table 4 Lessons learned from the Baltimore Healthy Carry-outs intervention

From: Development and implementation of the Baltimore healthy carry-outs feasibility trial: process evaluation results

Goal Method Outcome
Recruitment ■ Stratifying stores by ethnicity of owners followed by random sampling ■ Recruitment of comparison and intervention carry-outs that could be more accurately compared
■ Visiting several times before active recruiting ■ Built a rapport and trust with owners
■ Explaining the purpose of the study ■ Appealed to interest of business owners to contribute to the community
Develop rapport ■ Use the same interventionists to visit the carry outs ■ Owners are more likely to trust the individuals they are more familiar with
■ If applicable, learn and use greetings in Korean ■ Cultural sensitivity is shown to carry out owners
■ Discuss store benefits for participation (e.g. gift cards, new menu boards) and benefits to researcher team (improved community health) ■ Owners are much more likely to participate in the study if they are given incentives and understand the research purpose
Motivate owners ■ Provide owners with supplies required of the intervention ■ Simplified receipt collection process; reduce error in data collection
■ Provide initial stock of new items ■ Reduce risk of carrying new item
■ Provide appropriate equipment for food item preparation ■ Owners will not be burdened by additional costs to introduce healthier items and can use the same ingredients, but healthier cooking methods.
Signage feasibility ■ Show owners pictures of food items before displaying them on new materials ■ Owners will be more accepting of picture taking when shown how appealing food photos look
■ Show owners and customers different options for the logo to get buy-in and determine preference ■ Owners and customers more responsive to menu logos
Low burden strategies ■ Menu-labeling and posters advertising healthy items ■ Placed little obligation on already busy business owners
  ■ Providing high-quality, attractive materials and helping put them up ■ Business owners liked the new materials, which led to higher acceptability