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Table 3 Off-label and in-label medicine use by ATC-classes and off-label strata, KiGGS 2003-2006

From: Off-label medicine use in children and adolescents: results of a population-based study in Germany

ATC-class Off-label use In-label use Total
Indication Age Over-dosing Under-dosing
n % n % n % n % n % n
Total 541 4.3 476 3.8% 583 4.6 2,202 17.4 8,865 70.0 12,667
A00 ALIMENTARY TRACT and METABOLISM 140 4.8 113 3.9% 86 2.9 654 22.4 1,933 66.1 2,926
A01 Stomatological preparations 47 2.8 80 4.7% 41 2.4 308 18.2 1215 71.9 1691
A03 Antispasmodic and anticholinergic agents and propulsives 6 4.7 3 2.4 8 6.3 18 14.2 92 72.4 127
A07 Antidiarrheals. Intestinal Antiinflammatory/Antiinfektive Agents 5 4.9 7 6.8 6 5.8 11 10.7 74 71.8 103
A11 Vitamins 35 5.1 10 1.4 18 2.6 218 31.5 411 59.4 692
A12 Mineral Supplements 42 22.5 4 2.1 6 3.2 84 44.9 51 27.3 187
A14 Anabolic Agents for Systemic Use 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 100 2
B00 BLOOD and BLOOD FORMING ORGANS 0 0 4 5.5 3 4.1 17 23.3 49 67.1 73
C00 CARDIOVASKULAR SYSTEM 3 5.2 11 19.0 3 5.2 22 37.9 19 32.8 58
C01 Cardic Therapy 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 30.0 7 70.0 10
C05 Vasoprotectives 1 4.0 0 0 1 4.0 17 68.0 6 24.0 25
C07 Beta Blocking Agents 1 10.0 7 70.0 0 0 1 10.0 1 10.0 10
D00 DERMATOLOGICALS 69 4.4 42 2.7 30 1.9 344 21.8 1,094 69.3 1579
D01 Antifungals for Dermatological Use 7 6.1 1 0.9 5 4.3 21 18.3 81 70.4 115
D02 Emollients and Protectives 4 1.6 4 1.6 4 1.6 29 11.9 203 83.2 244
D03 Preparations for Treatment of Wounds and Ulcers 17 5.3 2 0.6 0 0 3 0.9 297 93.1 319
D04 Antipruritics. incl. Antihistamines. Anesthetics etc. 1 0.6 1 0.6 1 0.6 46 28.6 112 69.6 161
D06 Antibiotics and Chemotherapeutics for Dermatological Use 10 11.6 1 1.2 2 2.3 49 57.0 24 27.9 86
D07 Corticosteroids. Dermatological Preparations 23 10.2 15 6.6 13 5.8 95 42.0 80 35.4 226
D10 Anti-Akne Preparations 2 1.8 0 0 1 0.9 28 25.5 79 71.8 110
D11 Other Dermatological Preparations 4 1.8 16 7.4 3 1.4 69 31.8 125 57.6 217
G00 GENITO URINARY SYSTEM and SEX HORMONES 52 10.5 2 0.4 4 0.8 8 1.6 431 86.7 497
G03 Sex Hormones and Modulators of the Genital System 48 10.6 1 0.2 3 0.7 2 0.4 398 88.1 452
H00 SYSTEMIC HORMONAL PREPARATIONS. excl. SEX HORMONES and INSULINS 6 2.0 0 0 7 2.4 29 9.8 253 85.8 2,,95
H03 Thyroid Therapy 1 0.4 0 0 5 2.0 28 11.4 212 86.2 246
J00 ANTIINFECTIVES for SYSTEMIC USE 25 6.7 5 1.3 21 5.6 71 19.0 252 67.4 374
J01 Antibiotics for Systemic Use 25 7.5 4 1.2 21 6.3 71 21.3 212 63.7 333
L00 ANTINEOPLASTIC and IMMUNMODULATING AGENTS 8 9.4 7 8.2 5 5.9 24 28.2 41 48.2 85
L03 Immunostimulants 8 11.3 6 8.5 4 5.6 23 32.4 30 42.3 71
M00 MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM 11 2.0 31 5.6 8 1.5 47 8.5 454 82.4 551
M01 Antiinflammatory and Antirheumatic Products 2 0.8 16 6.4 6 2.4 26 10.4 200 80.0 250
M02 Topical Products for Joint and Muscular Pain 7 2.5 14 5.0 1 0.4 16 5.7 242 86.4 280
N00 NERVOUS SYSTEM 28 2.6 43 3.9 11 1.0 93 8.5 921 84.0 1,096
N02 Analgesics 11 1.4 30 3.9 5 0.6 66 8.5 664 85.6 776
N06 Psychoanaleptics 7 3.8 2 1.1 0 0.0 9 4.9 167 90.3 185
R00 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 94 2.4 202 5.2 334 8.6 786 20.2 2477 63.6 3,893
R01 Nasal Preparations 13 1.3 55 5.5 18 1.8 60 6.1 845 85.3 991
R02 Throat Preparations 2 1.3 2 1.3 13 8.7 9 6.0 124 82.7 150
R03 Anti-Asthmatics 20 3.5 46 8.0 16 2.8 72 12.6 419 73.1 573
R04 Chest Ointments. Inhalatives 3 1.0 35 11.3 0 0.0 108 34.7 165 53.1 311
R05 Cough and Cold Preparations 42 2.6 54 3.3 278 16.9 476 28.9 797 48.4 1647
R06 Antihistamines for Systemic Use 13 6.1 10 4.7 9 4.2 60 28.3 120 56.6 212
S00 SENSORY ORGANS 20 10.0 2 1.0 10 5.0 60 30.0 108 54.0 200
S01 Ophthalmologicals 19 13.4 2 1.4 2 1.4 47 33.1 72 50.7 142
S02 Otologicals 1 1.9 0 0 7 13.5 11 21.2 33 63.5 52
V00 VARIOUS 5 2.3 1 0.5 6 2.8 23 10.6 183 83.9 218
V03 All Other Therapeutic Products 3 3.0 0 0 4 4.0 18 18.2 74 74.7 99
V06 General Nutrients 0 0 1 2.0 2 4.0 5 10.0 42 84.0 50
Z00 HOMOEOPATHICS 80 10.0 11 1.4 55 6.9 23 2.9 631 78.9 800