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Table 2 Formative research for HIV interventions for black MSM

From: A systematic review of HIV interventions for black men who have sex with men (MSM)

First author,year N total sample Location Intervention Name Theory/Model Description Evaluation design Findings
Formative Research and Intervention Development
Jagantha (2011) NA California Harnessing Online Peer Education (HOPE) Community Population Opinion Leader Model Training of peer leaders in HIV prevention education and behavior change to interact with participants on a Facebook group. Pre-post questionnaire, activity log, content analysis of Facebook discussion, and interviews Evaluation results not included in article
Hightow-Weidman (2011) NA North Carolina HEALTHMPOWERMENT.ORG Institute of Medicine’s Integrated Model of Behavior Theory Formative research for website development 3 focus groups, semi-structured interviews, and two rounds of usability testing 1. Website development was an iterative process 2. Usability testing suggests that site is high rates of satisfaction, content acceptability, and usability
Wu (2010) 8 couples with at least one African American partner per couple New York Pilot version of Connect with Pride Theory of Behavior Change Formative research for intervention adaptation 6 focus group discussions 1. Developed a relationship-oriented framework for sexual risk behavior for African American, methamphetamine-involved male couples 2. Adapted Couples an intervention for heterosexual couples for African American couples by adapting and revising activities
Williams (2009) 58 African American MSMW Los Angeles Men of African Legacy Empowering Self (MAALES) Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior, Empowerment Theory, Critical Thinking and Cultural Affirmation Model Formative research for intervention adaptation 9 focus group discussions, 20 individual interviews, and a pilot intervention session 1. Developed a culturally congruent intervention for African American MSMW 2. Early evaluation and case studies indicate high level of participant satisfaction and favorable outcomes