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Table 5 Decomposition of rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes – Nepal

From: Rural-urban disparities in child nutrition in Bangladesh and Nepal

  Quantiles
  Q10 Q25 Q50 Q75 Q90
Rural HAZ scores −3.6498*** −2.9145*** −2.1065*** −1.2287*** −0.3370***
Urban HAZ scores −3.2651*** −2.5150*** −1.6845*** −0.8250*** −0.0186
Observed raw gap in HAZ scoresa −0.3847*** −0.3995*** −0.4220*** −0.4037*** −0.3184***
Covariate effect (% contribution) −0.3744*** (97.32%) −0.3484*** (87.21%) −0.3045*** (72.16%) −0.3404*** (84.32%) −0.2608*** (81.91%)
Co-efficient effect (% contribution) −0.0103 (2.68%) −0.0510 (12.77%) −0.1175* (27.87%) −0.0633 (15.68%) −0.0576 (18.09%)
  Contribution of individual characteristics to rural-urban differences in HAZ scores b
  Covariate effect   Co-efficient effect
  Q10 Q25 Q50 Q75 Q90   Q10 Q25 Q50 Q75 Q90
Size of effect −0.3744*** −0.3484*** −0.3045*** −0.3404*** −0.2608***   −0.0103 −0.0510 −0.1175* −0.0633 −0.0103
Explained
Female gender of child 0.0001 (-0.04%) 0.0001 (-0.03%) 0.0000 (0.00%) 0.0000 (0.00%) −0.0002 (0.06%)   −0.0001 (0.24%) 0.0000 (0.00%) 0.0000 (0.00%) 0.0000 (0.00%) 0.0001 (-0.15%)
Age of child 0.0043 (-1.71%) 0.0057 (-1.99%) 0.0102 (-3.06%) 0.0143 (-4.41%) 0.0189 (-5.66%)   0.0090 (-21.18%) 0.0092 (-31.51%) 0.0112 (-18.54%) (0.0101 (-10.10%) 0.0118 (-17.35%)
Child vaccinated −0.0032 (1.27%) −0.0026 (0.91%) −0.0040* (1.20%) −0.0059* (1.82%) −0.0080* (2.40%)   0.0003 (-0.71%) −0.0020 (6.85%) −0.0025 (4.14%) −0.0047 (4.70%) −0.0064 (9.41%)
Age of mother −0.0102** (4.05%) −0.0106*** (3.70%) −0.0054* (1.62%) −0.0041 (1.26%) 0.0085 (-2.54%)   0.0010 (-2.35%) 0.0000 (0.00%) −0.0011 (1.82%) −0.0004 (0.40%) −0.0008 (1.18%)
Mother’s working status −0.0210** (8.33%) −0.0258*** (9.00%) −0.0224*** (6.71%) −0.0267*** (8.23%) −0.0538*** (16.11%)   −0.0028 (6.59%) −0.0023 (7.88%) 0.0007 (-1.16%) −0.0054 (5.40%) −0.0054 (7.94%)
Mother’s education (yrs) −0.0560*** (22.21%) −0.0944*** (32.93%) −0.1174*** (35.17%) −0.1091*** (33.63%) −0.1794*** (53.71%)   −0.0016 (3.76%) −0.0022 (7.53%) −0.0029 (4.80%) −0.0025 (2.50%) −0.0022 (3.24%)
Spouse’s education (yrs) −0.0554*** (21.98%) −0.0290*** (10.12%) −0.0036 (1.08%) −0.0204* (6.29%) −0.0177 (5.30%)   −0.0013 (3.06%) −0.0026 (8.90%) −0.0014 (2.32%) 0.0016 (-1.60%) 0.0007 (-1.03%)
Wealth index −0.0950*** (37.68%) −0.1197*** (41.75%) −0.1704*** (51.05%) −0.1626*** (50.12%) −0.0880** (26.35%)   −0.0409** (96.24%) −0.0218* (74.66%) −0.0600*** (99.34%) −0.0998*** (99.80%) −0.0655*** (96.32%)
Extended family dummy 0.0007 (-0.28%) 0.0004 (-0.14%) −0.0003 (0.09%) −0.0009 (0.28%) −0.0007 (0.21%)   −0.0023 (5.41%) −0.0049 (16.78%) −0.0037 (6.13%) 0.0013 (-1.30%) −0.0006 (0.88%)
Dependency ratio −0.0114 (4.52%) −0.0046 (1.60%) −0.0176*** (5.27%) −0.0114** (3.51%) −0.0202*** (6.05%)   −0.0018 (4.24%) −0.0017 (5.82%) −0.0008 (1.32%) 0.0006 (-0.60%) 0.0006 (-0.88%)
No. of children < 5 yrs −0.0049 (1.94%) −0.0061** (2.13%) −0.0029 (0.87%) 0.0026 (-0.80%) 0.0065 (-1.95%)   −0.0020 (4.71%) −0.0009 (3.08%) 0.0001 (-0.17%) −0.0008 (0.80%) −0.0004 (0.59%)
Total −0.2521*** (100%) −0.2867*** (100%) −0.3338*** (100%) −0.3244*** (100%) −0.3340*** (100%)   −0.0425 (100%) −0.0292 (100%) −0.0604* (100%) −0.1000*** (100%) −0.0680* (100%)
Unexplained
Residual −0.0571 −0.0617 0.0294 −0.0160 0.0732   0.0322 −0.0218 −0.0572 0.0367 0.0104
  1. aRaw gap in HAZ scores computed as rural HAZ scores- urban HAZ scores. The negative sign of the observed raw gap figures reflects the fact that rural HAZ scores are lower than urban HAZ scores.
  2. bFigures in brackets show percentage contribution of individual characteristics to the total explained effect.
  3. Significant effects are in bold. Asterisks denote level of significance - ***, ** and * denote significance at the 1%, 5% and 10% level of significance respectively.