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Table 3 Bivariate associations between self-perceived changes in alcohol consumption and demographic variables, disaster exposure, and post-traumatic stress symptoms

From: Changes in alcohol consumption after a natural disaster: a study of Norwegian survivors after the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami

   Increased drinking Decreased drinking
(N = 830) (N = 830)
  Total (N) N (%) or mean OR (95% CI) N (%) or mean OR (95% CI)
Age a,b 830 43.4 vs. 43.4 1.00 (0.83–1.20) 38.7 vs. 43.8 0.72** (0.58–0.90)
Sex      
  Female 440 31 (7.0) - 33 (7.5) -
  Male 390 47 (12.1) 1.81* (1.12–2.91) 24 (6.2) 0.81 (0.47–1.39)
Education      
  ≤ 12 years 305 34 (11.1) - 19 (6.2) -
  > 12 years 470 40 (8.5) 0.74 (0.46–1.20) 34 (7.2) 1.17 (0.66–2.10)
Married or cohabiting a      
  Yes 557 44 (7.9) - 36 (6.5) -
  No 239 33 (13.8) 1.87* (1.16–3.02) 20 (8.4) 1.32 (0.75–2.34)
Employed a      
  Yes 627 61 (9.7) - 37 (5.9) -
  No 203 17 (8.4) 0.85 (0.48–1.49) 20 (9.9) 1.74 (0.99–3.08)
Disaster exposure      
  Not exposed 123 1 (0.8) - 2 (1.6) -
  Non-danger exposed 432 36 (8.3) 11.09* (1.51–81.73) 25 (5.8) 3.72 (0.87–15.91)
  Danger exposed 275 41 (14.9) 21.38** (2.91–157.28) 30 (10.9) 7.41** (1.74–31.51)
IES-R c (mean score) 815 1.80 vs. 1.02 2.88*** (2.17–3.82) 1.52 vs. 1.06 1.84*** (1.36–2.49)
  1. * p-value < 0.05.
  2. ** p-value < 0.01.
  3. *** p-value < 0.001.
  4. a At the time of the disaster.
  5. b OR per 10 years.
  6. c Impact of Event Scale-Revised.