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Table 1 Personal characteristics of elders, including self reported health status and intergenerational exchanges

From: The protective effect of taking care of grandchildren on elders’ mental health? Associations between changing patterns of intergenerational exchanges and the reduction of elders’ loneliness and depression between 1993 and 2007 in Taiwan

    Year   
  Total 1993 1999 2007   
  n = 5070 n = 914 n = 1792 n = 2292   
Characteristics n % n % n % n % chi-sq p-value
Gender           
  Male 2630 51.87 510 55.80 960 53.57 1160 50.61 8.07 0.018
  Female 2368 46.71 404 44.20 832 46.43 1132 49.39   
Age (years)           
  60 ~ 69 1717 33.87 270 29.54 358 19.98 1089 47.51 396.53 <0.001
  70 ~ 79 2243 44.24 451 49.34 1054 58.82 738 32.20   
  80 ~ 89 948 18.70 182 19.91 346 19.31 420 18.32   
  90 ~ 99 90 1.78 11 1.20 34 1.90 45 1.96   
Education           
  Illiterate 1678 33.10 440 48.14 653 36.44 585 25.52 197.02 <0.0001
  under high school 2737 53.98 359 39.28 935 52.18 1443 62.96   
  College and above 261 5.15 36 3.94 81 4.52 144 6.28   
  can read 318 6.27 76 8.32 122 6.81 120 5.24   
Ethnicty           
  Fuchien 3374 66.55 617 67.51 1169 65.23 1588 69.28 21.97 0.001
  Hakka 851 16.79 155 16.96 296 16.52 400 17.45   
  Mainlander 682 13.45 118 12.91 290 16.18 274 11.95   
  others 79 1.56 22 2.41 28 1.56 29 1.27   
Living place           
  Large city 716 14.12 104 11.38 249 13.90 363 15.84 26.07 0.001
  Big city 623 12.29 131 14.33 220 12.28 272 11.87   
  Small city 1125 22.16 190 20.79 393 21.93 542 23.65   
  Township 991 19.55 186 20.35 338 18.86 467 20.38   
  Rural area 1543 30.43 303 33.15 592 33.04 648 28.27   
Employment status           
  No job 4230 83.43 776 84.90 1582 88.28 1872 81.68 73.34 <0.0001
  Full time job 593 11.70 79 8.64 167 9.32 347 15.14   
  Part time job 175 3.45 59 6.46 43 2.40 73 3.18   
Self-reported health status           
  good to normal 3338 65.84 630 68.93 1088 60.71 1620 70.68 47.49 <0.0001
  bad to very bad 1659 32.72 283 30.96 704 39.29 672 29.32   
Intergenerational emotional exchange           
Partnership status           
  living with partner 1772 34.95 432 47.26 696 38.84 644 28.10 118.67 <0.0001
  living without partner 3225 63.61 482 52.74 1096 61.16 1647 71.86   
Co-residence with children           
  Yes 3191 62.94 624 68.27 1164 64.96 1403 61.21 15.59 <0.0001
  No 1807 35.64 290 31.73 628 35.04 889 38.79   
Take care of grandchildren           
  Yes 833 16.43 83 9.08 270 15.07 480 20.94 71.34 <0.0001
  No 4165 82.15 831 90.92 1522 84.93 1812 79.06   
  1. #missing data is not shown in this table.