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Table 3 Association between selected risk factors and prevalence of pre-hypertension among adult Nepali women (n = 15,404)

From: A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in rural Nepali women

  Pre-Hypertensiona
  Odds Ratio (95% CI)
  Pahadi Madheshi
  (n=4945) (n=10,421)
  Unadjusted Adjustedb Unadjusted Adjustedb
SES: Household quality     
  High Reference - - -
  Middle 1.08 (0.90 to 1.29) 1.04 (0.86 to 1.27) 0.84 (0.73 to 0.98) 0.92 (0.80 to 1.07)
  Low 1.23 (1.03 to 1.46) 1.23 (1.03 to 1.52) 0.89 (0.75 to 1.01) 0.93 (0.79 to 1.08)
SES: Farming and food     
  High Reference - - -
  Middle 0.87 (0.71 to 1.03) 0.78 (0.69 to 1.12) 1.04 (0.90 to 1.20) 1.09 (0.95 to 1.27)
  Low 1.03 (0.86 to 1.24) 0.95 (0.78 to 1.15) 1.28 (1.12 to 1.47) 1.31 (1.14 to 1.55)
SES: Household Assets     
  High Reference - - -
  Middle 1.11 (0.93 to 1.32) 1.11 (0.9 to 1.33) 0.94 (0.81 to 1.08) 0.99 (0.85 to 1.14)
  Low 1.25 (1.04 to 1.51) 1.27 (1.04 to 1.55) 0.81 (0.67 to 0.96) 0.86 (0.74 to 1.00)
Age     
  16 to 30 Reference - - -
  31 to 45 1.74 (1.48 to 2.05) 1.67 (1.40 to 1.98) 1.30 (1.14 to 1.47) 1.34 (1.17 to 1.52)
  46 and above 1.58 (1.11 to 2.25) 1.63 (1.12 to 2.34) 2.23 (1.72 to 2.88) 2.47 (1.88 to 3.24)
Smoking     
  No Reference - - -
  Yes 1.15 (0.99 to 1.34) 0.96 (0.80 to 1.16) 1.05 (0.87 to 1.16) 0.93 (0.79 to 1.10)
Alcohol     
  No Reference - - -
  Yes 1.55 (1.33 to 1.81) 1.57 (1.30 to 1.88) 1.51 (1.07 to 2.12) 1.46 (1.02 to 2.10)
MUAC (cm) 1.07 (1.04 to 1.10) 1.11 (1.08 to 1.14) 1.08 (1.06 to 1.11) 1.08 (1.05 to 1.10)
Occupation     
  Does not work Reference - - -
  Works outside home 0.89 (0.72 to 1.10) 0.82 (0.65 to1.03) 0.77 (0.67 to 0.88) 0.80 (0.70 to 0.92)
  1. Abbreviations: SES = Socioeconomic Status; MUAC = Mid Upper Arm Circumference.
  2. aPre-hypertension defined by systolic blood pressure ≥ 120 mmHg but ≤140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure was ≥ 80 mmHg but ≤90 mmHg.
  3. bAdjusted for all other variables in the table.
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