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Table 2 Free-listing of perceived common illnesses in newborns and young children

From: Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya

Health problem # mentioned (N = 29) Equivalent english term Perceived causes
1. Ndani ya chitovu 23 Abdominal colic Occurs in a process of healing an umbilical cord, not used to breast milk, worm in the stomach
2. Mafuwa 21 “Flue (bad cold)”, Chest cold Coldness
3. Kukohola 20 Coughing Coldness, pregnant mother carrying heavy load
4. Kuhaphika 20 Vomiting Fever, excessive breast-milk, Nyuni
5. Mwilimoto/homa 20 Fever, High temperature, “homa” could be malaria Coldness, bad (cold) weather
6. Kuharisha 18 Diarrhea Mismatching of different types of foods, fever, erupting tooth, eye contact with eagle, caused by stomachache, husband having an affair with other women, Nyuni
7. Kulumwa ni masto 13 Sore eye Dust, outbreak
8. Kulumwa ni masikiro 9 Sore ear Drips of water in the ears during bathing
9. Kuodzala ndani ( Dzongo ) 8 Stomachache, Swelling of stomachache Dzongo (evil eye), baby swallowing breast-milk simultaneously the person who sees the baby swallowing ones saliva
10. Uphere 8 rash Dirty clothes, dirty environment
11. Malaria 7 malaria Mosquito, not using bed-net, coldness
12. Marenjerenje/ Majipu 7 Blister, Boil Warm/hot weather
13. Mwalidago 6 Ringworm Do not know
14. Kurira 6 Continuous crying Being hungry, eye contact with eagle, evil spirit
15. Nyuni 6 Fits, Convulsion, Eye-ball rolling over Eye contact with eagle, evil spirit, malaria, inheritance, scent of young leaves & shoot
16. Pumu 5 Chronic respiratory disease (asthma) Coldness during rainy season
17. Kilimi 5 Uvula, sever coughing and vomiting Uvula, do not know
18. Manjano 5 Yellow fever Lack of blood
19. Kukosa choo 5 Constipation Lack of drinking fluid and water
20. Harara 5 Heat rash Warm/hot weather
21. Mshipa (kwa wavulana) 4 Abdominal pain for boys (reproductive organ problem) Do not know, coldness
22. Tetemaji 3 Chicken pox Do not know
23. Kubanwa na mbavu 3 Difficulties in breathing Coldness, Nyuni, eye contact with eagle
24. Vidonda mdomoni 2 Sore mouth coldness
25. Ukambl 2 Measles Outbreak
26. Kichwa 2 Headache A lot of stress
27. Kifua kuma 2 Chest pain Drinking dirty amniotic fluid at birth
28. Riaka 2 Stiff neck Do not know
29. Kukosa ham ya kula 1 Loss of appetite Dege (baby swallowing breast-milk simultaneously the person who sees the baby swallowing ones saliva)
30. Kifua kikuu 1 Tuberculosis Inheritance
31. Kulegea 1 Paralysis (physical disability) Coldness
32. Kichocho 1 Schistosomiasis Dirty water
33. Kukosa Kukojia 1 Urination problem Do not know
34. Kufura Miguu 1 Swelling of legs Do not know
35. jasho, kutoka 1 Sweating Dehydration
36. Kucha kuuma 1 Pain of nails Infected blood
37. Chirwa 1 Sickness mainly diarrhea Father having an affair with other women
38. Funza 1 Jigger (chigger) Infected blood
39. Mwalihosi 1 Moving of fontanel Natural to happen to newborn