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Table 3 Variables associated with sickness certifying for longer periods than actually necessary due to factors in the health care system or wait for action from other stakeholders

From: Reasons for and factors associated with issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary: results from a nationwide survey of physicians

  Sickness absences issued for longer periods than necessary due to health care factors Sickness absences issued for longer periods than necessary due to wait for action from other stakeholders
  Unadjusted ORa(99% CI) MultivariatebOR (99% CI) Unadjusted ORa(99% CI) MultivariatebOR (99% CI)
Gender Female 1 - 1 -
  Male 1.06 (0.96-1.16) - 1.07 (0.96-1.18) -
Age – 34 1 - 1 1
  35 – 44 0.92 (0.79-1.06) - 1.47 (1.24-1.75)** 1.26 (0.97-1.63)
  45 – 54 1.00 (0.86-1.16) - 2.09 (1.76-2.47)** 1.48 (1.09-2.00)*
  55 – 64 1.13 (0.98-1.30) - 2.51 (2.14-2.95)** 1.78 (1.30-2.44)**
  65 – 1.00 (0.78-1.28)   2.23 (1.70-2.91)** 2.18 (1.39-3.40)**
Board certified specialist No 1 - 1 1
Yes 1.00 (0.90-1.11) - 1.71 (1.52-1.92)** 1.65 (1.30-2.09)**  
Sickness certification consultations     
1-5 times a week 1 1 1 1
More than 5 times a week 2.90 (2.62-3.20)** 1.96 (1.69-2.27)** 2.56 (2.30-2.84)** 1.61 (1.37-1.88)**
Well established workplace policy     
Yes (Reference = no) 1.18 (1.05-1.33)** 0.85 (0.71-1.02) 1.56 (1.38-1.76)** 0.94 (0.79-1.13)
Support from your management     
Yes (Reference = no) 1.07 (0.97-1.18) - 0.99 (0.89-1.10) -
Frequency of the following situations related to sickness certification:     
Delicate interactions with patients 3.18 (2.94-3.45)** 1.79 (1.62-1.98)** 2.18 (2.05-2.32)** 1.57 (1.44-1.71)**
Lack of time 2.10 (1.99-2.22)** 1.52 (1.41-1.65)** 1.86 (1.75-1.98)** 1.39 (1.27-1.52)**
Collaboration, referrals, and support 2.47 (2.32-2.64)** 1.62 (1.46-1.80)** 2.80 (2.63-2.99)** 1.78 (1.61-1.97)**
Need for more competence 1.59 (1.51-1.68)** 1.01 (0.92.-1.10) 1.41 (1.34-1.50)** 1.02 (0.93-1.12)
Perceived problems regarding sickness certification:     
Problems with the sickness certification guidelines 0.88 (0.83-0.92)** 1.07 (1.00-1.14) 0.86 (0.82-0.90)** 1.05 (0.98-1.12)
General problems with sickness certification 1.87 (1.77-1.97)** 1.17 (1.07-1.29)** 1.62 (1.53-1.71)** 1.04 (0.94-1.14)
Problems with assessments 1.99 (1.88-2.10)** 1.19 (1.06-1.34)** 1.73 (1.63-1.83)** 1.20 (1.05-1.36)**
Problems with patient contacts 1.88 (1.78-1.98)** 1.11 (0.99-1.25) 1.57 (1.48-1.66)** 1.10 (0.98-1.24)
Clinic     
Internal medicine 1 1 1 1
Occupational health 7.08 (5.02-10.00)** 4.77 (2.67-8.50)** 9.82 (7.11-13.57)** 2.58 (1.56-4.27)**
Orthopedic 4.82 (3.75-6.19)** 2.53 (1.86-3.46)** 3.23 (2.43-4.29)** 1.52 (1.08-2.15)*
Primary health care 4.74 (3.99-5.63)** 1.85 (1.45-2.35)** 7.32 (5.84-9.17)** 2.43 (1.81-3.26)**
Psychiatry 2.62 (2.10-3.27)** 1.04 (0.77-1.41) 5.38 (4.12-7.03)** 1.93 (1.37-2.73)**
Neurology 2.12 (2.10-3.27)** 1.25 (0.78-2.00) 3.30 (2.15-5.07)** 2.00 (1.20-3.36)*
Rheumatology 1.80 (1.19-2.72)** 0.97 (0.58-1.61) 4.16 (2.65-6.55)** 1.90 (1.09-3.32)*
Pain 1.18 (0.62-2.26) 0.81 (0.32-2.04) 2.43 (1.16-5.07)* 0.70 (0.24-2.11)
Rehabilitation 1.09 (0.69-1.71) 0.39 (0.21-0.72)** 3.27 (1.99-5.38)** 0.86 (0.44-1.66)
Surgery 0.78 (0.63-0.97)* 0.91 (0.69-1.19) 0.44 (0.30-0.64)** 0.52 (0.34-0.81)**
Gynecology 0.69 (0.53-0.89)** 0.50 (0.36-0.70)** 0.80 (0.55-1.16) 0.61 (0.38-0.96)*
Infection 0.51 (0.34-0.76)** 0.55 (0.34-0.90)* 0.51 (0.26-0.98)* 0.48 (0.21-1.10)
Oncology 0.50 (0.34-0.72)** 0.53 (0.34-0.84)** 0.48 (0.26-0.91)* 0.54 (0.26-1.10)
Child and youth 0.47 (0.25-0.88)* 0.60 (0.27-1.35) 0.65 (0.26-1.64) 0.75 (0.26-2.14)
Ear, nose and throat 0.44 (0.31-0.63)* 0.47 (0.30-0.74)** 0.60 (0.34-1.03) 0.52 (0.26-1.02)
Dermatology 0.44 (0.18-1.06) 0.35 (0.11-1.14) 0.92 (0.29-2.86) 1.21 (0.34-4.32)
Eye 0.39 (0.19-0.80)** 0.45 (0.18-1.16) 1.10 (0.48-2.52) 1.75 (0.67-4.56)
  1. a OR denotes odds ratio; CI denotes confidence interval. b The multivariable analysis was performed by simultaneously entering into the model all variables that were significantly associated with the dependent variable. * = Significant at p < 0.01; ** = Significant at p < 0.001.