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Table 2 Australian adults 16–85 years: proportion who smoke by mental health status and socioeconomic factors

From: Smoking, mental illness and socioeconomic disadvantage: analysis of the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing

Parameter 12 month mental illness Lifetime mental illness No mental illness
  Percent 95% CI Percent 95% CI Percent 95% CI
Quintiles of household income—       
  Lowest quintile 39.5 32.8 - 46.2 32.0 25.2 - 38.7 14.4 11.4 - 17.3
  Second quintile 40.6 31.2 - 50.0 28.0 21.0 - 34.9 14.5 11.0 - 18.0
  Third quintile 35.9 27.7 - 44.0 26.6 20.4 - 32.8 14.4 10.9 - 17.8
  Fourth quintile 31.7 23.5 - 39.9 31.9 26.4 - 37.5 14.2 11.1 - 17.3
  Highest quintile 29.6 21.8 - 37.4 26.8 18.9 - 34.7 9.6 7.0 - 12.1
  Not stated 38.2 29.1 - 47.3 35.4 20.4 - 50.5 14.7 10.4 - 19.0
  χ2 = 5.83, p = 0.320 χ2 = 3.60, p = 0.612 χ2 = 7.09, p = 0.218
Quintiles of relative socioeconomic disadvantage—       
  Lowest quintile 44.9 36.4 - 53.4 38.1 30.1 - 46.0 18.9 14.9 - 22.9
  Second quintile 45.1 37.3 - 53.0 32.2 26.3 - 38.2 16.5 13.1 - 20.0
  Third quintile 36.7 28.7 - 44.7 29.2 21.6 - 36.8 12.1 9.1 - 15.2
  Fourth quintile 29.4 22.8 - 36.1 25.1 19.5 - 30.7 13.5 10.1 - 17.0
  Highest quintile 26.0 18.0 - 34.0 26.1 17.8 - 34.3 9.6 7.2 - 12.0
  χ2 = 19.4, p < 0.001 χ2 = 8.58, p = 0.072 χ2 = 20.4, p < 0.001
Education—       
  Bachelor degree or higher 23.5 16.7 - 30.3 18.4 11.8 - 25.0 7.7 5.4 - 10.1
  Diploma 38.5 26.3 - 50.7 25.2 12.1 - 38.3 12.9 7.9 - 17.8
  Certificate I/II/III/IV 39.4 32.7 - 46.0 32.7 27.4 - 38.1 14.7 11.2 - 18.2
  Year 12 29.0 21.8 - 36.2 31.7 19.4 - 44.0 15.9 11.5 - 20.3
  Year 11 44.0 29.6 - 58.3 29.8 17.1 - 42.4 16.7 9.5 - 24.0
  Year 10 41.8 31.5 - 52.1 39.7 30.2 - 49.1 15.2 11.3 - 19.0
  Year 9 or below 45.0 33.4 - 56.7 35.9 26.6 - 45.1 15.7 12.1 - 19.3
  χ2 = 19.0, p = 0.004 χ2 = 17.4, p = 0.008 χ2 = 17.2, p = 0.008
Whether ever been homeless—       
  Yes 63.6 51.6 - 75.7 67.7 58.1 - 77.3 31.5 12.5 - 50.5
  No 33.7 30.1 - 37.4 28.2 24.8 - 31.6 13.5 12.1 - 15.0
  χ2 = 23.6, p < 0.001 χ2 = 61.8, p < 0.001 χ2 = 7.2, p = 0.007
Whether ever in gaol, prison or correctional facility—       
  Yes 80.0 70.1 - 89.9 63.3 46.6 - 80.1 35.5 5.9 - 65.0
  No 33.9 30.4 - 37.4 28.5 25.1 - 32.0 13.5 12.1 - 14.9
  χ2 = 67.5, p < 0.001 χ2 = 19.0, p < 0.001 χ2 = 5.75, p = 0.016
Registered marital status—       
  Never married 46.3 41.4 - 51.3 40.5 33.9 - 47.1 17.4 15.1 - 19.8
  Married 25.0 19.2 - 30.8 22.2 17.4 - 27.0 10.3 8.6 - 12.0
  Widowed 16.1 3.5 - 28.8 19.0 9.2 - 28.9 10.8 8.2 - 13.5
  Divorced 37.5 28.2 - 46.8 40.1 30.3 - 49.8 23.6 16.1 - 31.0
  Separated 44.4 35.2 - 53.6 38.0 22.5 - 53.5 36.6 24.4 - 48.8
  χ2 = 55.3, p < 0.001 χ2 = 39.7, p < 0.001 χ2 = 79.7, p < 0.001
Tenure type—       
  Owner without a mortgage 26.8 20.2 - 33.5 20.7 15.9 - 25.5 8.2 6.5 - 9.9
  Owner with a mortgage 30.9 25.1 - 36.6 27.0 21.7 - 32.4 14.6 12.1 - 17.1
  Renter 48.2 42.8 - 53.5 43.0 35.2 - 50.9 21.6 17.9 - 25.4
  Other 52.8 31.0 - 74.6 28.7 17.7 - 39.8 16.6 9.4 - 23.9
  χ2 = 31.3, p < 0.001 χ2 = 33.7, p < 0.001 χ2 = 55.7, p < 0.001
Financial difficulties—       
  Yes 50.1 43.7 - 56.6 41.9 35.2 - 48.7 25.8 18.1 - 33.5
  No 30.7 26.6 - 34.7 27.6 23.8 - 31.4 12.5 11.2 - 13.8
  χ2 = 27.9 p < 0.001 χ2 = 14.4, p < 0.001 χ2 = 20.9, p < 0.001
Labour force status—       
  Employed 36.0 31.6 - 40.5 30.4 26.9 - 34.0 14.9 12.8 - 16.9
  Unemployed 57.8 40.2 - 75.3 74.3 44.8 - 100.0 31.1 18.8 - 43.4
  Not in the labour force 33.7 26.9 - 40.5 23.7 19.4 - 27.9 10.5 8.8 - 12.1
  χ2 = 6.21, p = 0.045 χ2 = 23.2, p < 0.001 χ2 = 27.6, p < 0.001
Occupation of main job—       
  Managers 26.3 16.3 - 36.4 20.4 14.7 - 26.1 12.9 8.6 - 17.1
  Professionals 21.9 13.6 - 30.2 21.0 12.3 - 29.7 7.6 5.2 - 10.1
  Technicians and Trades Workers 44.7 34.8 - 54.5 36.9 26.4 - 47.4 17.5 11.8 - 23.3
  Community and Personal Services 39.3 26.4 - 52.3 21.8 13.0 - 30.7 20.2 12.9 - 27.5
  Clerical and Administrative Workers 33.3 22.9 - 43.8 35.3 23.5 - 47.1 13.2 8.8 - 17.6
  Sales Workers 38.4 25.1 - 51.7 19.8 9.5 - 30.0 14.9 7.9 - 21.9
  Machinery Operators And Drivers 39.0 17.4 - 60.6 41.5 27.9 - 55.2 27.2 17.3 - 37.2
  Labourers 55.9 45.3 - 66.4 53.9 41.4 - 66.3 20.1 11.7 - 28.5
  Not applicable 36.7 30.5 - 42.8 28.0 22.5 - 33.5 11.6 9.8 - 13.4
  χ2 = 26.7, p < 0.001 χ2 = 42.1, p < 0.001 χ2 = 36.5, p < 0.001
Family composition of household—       
  Couple with dependent children 32.9 25.9 - 40.0 23.5 18.3 - 28.7 10.2 7.7 - 12.7
  One parent with dependent children 36.0 25.4 - 46.6 32.4 20.4 - 44.4 25.0 16.2 - 33.9
  Couple only 27.9 21.7 - 34.2 24.2 20.8 - 27.6 10.3 8.7 - 12.0
  Other one family households 44.8 33.6 - 56.1 44.8 33.6 - 56.0 21.7 16.1 - 27.3
  Multiple family households 38.4 15.5 - 61.2 40.5 1.6 - 79.3 20.3 9.1 - 31.5
  Lone person household 38.2 34.2 - 42.3 33.8 29.2 - 38.5 15.1 13.0 - 17.1
  Group household 49.9 34.2 - 65.6 39.6 13.1 - 66.1 25.3 14.6 - 36.0
  χ2 = 14.3, p = 0.030 χ2 = 20.3, p = 0.002 χ2 = 55.0, p < 0.001
Main source of income—       
  Employee cash income 35.7 31.3 - 40.2 31.3 26.9 - 35.7 15.0 12.8 - 17.3
  Unincorporated business cash income 31.9 16.3 - 47.6 23.1 9.9 - 36.4 12.1 7.7 - 16.5
  Government pensions & allowances 43.4 36.9 - 49.9 32.9 25.6 - 40.2 13.1 10.5 - 15.6
  Other cash income 25.8 11.4 - 40.2 19.7 10.6 - 28.9 9.0 5.7 - 12.4
  None of the above 22.1 8.8 - 35.4 28.4 9.6 - 47.1 13.4 7.8 - 19.1
  χ2 = 10.7, p = 0.030 χ2 = 5.39, p = 0.250 χ2 = 8.4, p = 0.079