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Table 2 Studies included in systematic review

From: Acculturation and obesity among migrant populations in high income countries – a systematic review

Author (year)  Host country  Country of origin ( N)/ Gender  Study design  Acculturation scale  Measure of overweight /obesity Results Quality Limitations
Ahluwalia et al., [45] USA Mexico (1301, female: 664 male: 637) Cross-sectional Bi-dimensional acculturation scale (BDM) Measured BMI, waist circumference Higher degree of acculturation correlated with higher BMI. Among participants with a BMI ≥ 25, lower scores on acculturation predicted less likelihood of considering self as overweight (60% vs. 73%) and less likely of having attempted to lose weight (OR 5 0.49; 95% CI: 0.31–0.79).    Moderate Certain sample subgroups were too small for empirical examination. Despite using the BDM acculturation model, the analysis treated as a UDM.
Barcenas et al., [46] USA Mexico (7503, female: 5471, male: 2032) Cross-sectional Bi-dimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BDM) Self-reported BMI Higher degree of acculturation and length of residency in the US were correlated with higher BMI: 46% of highly acculturated participants were obese compared with 43% with a low degree of acculturation (p < .0096).    High Self-reported BMI cannot be verified and may bias results.
Bertera et al., [47] USA El Salvador (1205, female: 581 male: 624) Cross-sectional Uni-dimensional acculturation scale (UDM) Measured BMI Higher degree of acculturation was associated with higher BMI. As acculturation increased so too did BMI, and together with other variables accounted for 45% of the variance in BMI (p < .01-.001).    Moderate Self-reported BMI cannot be verified and may bias results.
Fitzgerald et al., [48] USA Puerto Rico (200 female) Cross-sectional Uni-dimensional acculturation scale (UDM) Measured BMI Higher degree of acculturation was associated with higher BMI. Acculturation correlated positively with obesity; with less acculturated participants were 54% less likely to be obese.    Moderate Data collection methods were not adequately reported.
Franzen et al., [49] USA Thailand/Laos, Hmong (65, female: 48, male: 17) Cross-sectional Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BDM) Measured BMI Higher degree of acculturation was associated with higher BMI. Changes in the environment and increased acculturation level had negative effects on body weight and overall health.    Moderate Participant attrition was not adequately reported.
Hazuda et al., [50] USA Mexico (2941, female: 1677, male: 1264) Cross-sectional Functional Integration with Mainstream Society scale (FIMS-scale), Value Placed on Preserving Mexican Cultural Origin scale (VPPMCO-scale) (BDM) Measured BMI, sub scapular to triceps skin-fold thickness ratio, waist-to-hip circumference ratio. In men, higher degree of acculturation was associated with higher BMI and less favourable body fat distribution. In women, higher degree of acculturation was associated with lower BMI and a more favourable body fat distribution (p = .01-.001). Prevalence of obesity was greater in Mexican-Americans than in non-Hispanic whites.    High --
Khan et al., [51] USA Mexico (female: 1723, male 1418)-, Cuba (female: 451, male 377)-, and Puerto Rican- (female: 747, male: 64) (5180) Cross-sectional Uni-dimensional acculturation scale (UDM) Measured BMI Spanish language preference correlated positively with obesity, and acculturation measurement of generations correlated positively with obesity (p = .05-.001).    Moderate The sample included second and third generation Cuban-Americans and Puerto Ricans as well as first generation migrants. For 2nd and 3rd generations, there was no full description of the process of acculturation for these subgroups of the sample. This may compromise comparability.
Lee et al., [52] USA Korea(356, female: ?, men: ?) Cross-sectional Two-culture Matrix Model based on Gordon’s theoretical work (BDM) Self-reported BMI Assimilated men recorded higher BMIs (1.7kg/m2 more) than men with lower degrees of acculturation (p < .05). Acculturation correlated positively with frequency of light physical activity (men OR = 4.34, p < .005; women OR = 7.38, p < .005) and better health in men (OR = 2.74, p < 05). No relationship between BMI and acculturation was present for women.    Moderate Sample included second generation Korean Americans, and was generally of a higher SES than 1990 census.
Miller et al., [53] USA Soviet Union women (218) Longitudinal (1 year duration) American and Russian Behavioural Acculturation Scale (BDM) Measured BMI & waist circumference Maintaining origin cultural orientation correlated positively with higher waist circumference (β = −.15, p < .05) and BMI (r 2 = .25, p < .01.    High --