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Table 5 Water contamination data from the seasonal water assessment

From: The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

Water contamination indicator Study period
  Winter Summer Monsoon System failure
Tap water samples (“point-of-source” water)
Chawl taps1 (n = 4)
 Samples with coliforms 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (25) --
n (%)
 Samples with E. coli 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (25) --
n (%)
Dharavi taps2 (n = 4)
 Samples with coliforms 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) --
n (%)
 Samples with E. coli 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) --
n (%)
Kaula Bandar motors and tap (n = 4)
 Samples with coliforms 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (50) --
n (%)
 Samples with E. coli 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) --
n (%)
Reay Road tap3 (n = 1)
 Samples with coliforms -- -- -- 0 (0)
n (%)
 Samples with E. coli -- -- -- 0 (0)
n (%)
Kaula Bandar hose samples (“distribution network” water, n = 6)
 Samples with coliforms 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (50) --
n (%)
 Samples with E. coli 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (16.7) --
n (%)
Kaula Bandar household level samples (“point-of-use” water)
Drinking Water (n = 21)
 Samples with coliforms 3 (14.3) 11 (52.4) 16 (76.2) 5 (23.8)
n (%)
 Coliform counts for contaminated samples in cfu/100 mL4 74.3 (36.5) 16.9 (8.2) 43.1 (8.5) 20.8 (9.8)
Mean (SD)
 Samples with E. coli 1 (4.8) 9 (42.9) 6 (28.6) 5 (23.8)
n (%)
Storage water (n = 21)
 Samples with coliforms 7 (33.3) 10 (47.6) 15 (71.4) 8 (38.1)
n (%)
 Coliform counts for contaminated samples in cfu/100 mL4 45.7 (34.8) 19.5 (10.1) 40.6 (6.7) 21.1 (7.1)
Mean (SD)
 Samples with E. coli 3 (21.4) 7 (33.3) 4 (19.0) 8 (38.1)
n (%)
  1. 1Control point-of-source samples from low-income housing units.
  2. 2Control point-of-source samples from a notified (government recognized) slum.
  3. 3This is the tap outside of the community most commonly used by Kaula Bandar residents during episodes of “system failure.”
  4. 4 cfu/100 mL = colony forming units per 100 milliliter.