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Table 3 Water indicators from the 2011 seasonal water assessment

From: The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

Water indicator Study period
  Winter Summer Monsoon System failure4
Water costs
  Monthly spending on water in INR1,2 379.8 (139.8) 1022.0 (676.6) 378.6 (114.1) --
  Mean (SD)
  Monthly spending on water in USD2,3 6.91 (2.54) 18.58 (12.30) 6.88 (2.07) --
  Mean (SD)
  Monthly spending on water as a percentage of the mean household income in KB2 5.9% 15.9% 5.9% --
  Estimated cost in INR per 1000 liters of water2 145.4 (87.0) 327.9 (258.9) 117.9 (56.6) 463.1 (297.2)
  Mean (SD)
  Estimated cost in USD per 1000 liters of water2 2.64 (1.58) 5.96 (4.71) 2.14 (1.03) 8.42 (5.40)
  Mean (SD)
  Comparison to government rate of INR 2.25 per 1000 liters of water2 65 146 52 206
Number of times more expensive
Quantity of household water use
  Liters per capita per day of water use 22.6 (12.6) 31.2 (23.6) 25.6 (13.2) 23.8 (14.2)
  Mean (SD)
  Households using <50 liters per capita per day 20 (95.2) 17 (80.95) 19 (90.4) 20 (95.2)
  n (%)
  Households using <20 liters per capita per day 9 (42.9) 8 (38.1) 8 (38.1) 10 (47.6)
  n (%)
  1. 1INR = Indian rupees.
  2. 2These figures are based on both the standard monthly payment to water vendors and additional weekly payments given during summer season and during periods of system failure.
  3. 3USD = US dollars.
  4. 4Data for monthly spending on water during the episode of system failure are not presented here, because the monthly costs are the same as those for the summer season, since the system breakdown happened in the same month. However, using the monthly summer costs plus the extra weekly cost spent during the period of system failure, we are able to present the estimated cost per 1000 liters of water for the system failure episode.