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Table 2 Associations of socio-demographic factors with creatinine-adjusted cotinine concentrations in Israeli nonsmoking adults, Israel human biomonitoring study, 2011 (N = 148)

From: Exposure to tobacco smoke based on urinary cotinine levels among Israeli smoking and nonsmoking adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the first Israeli human biomonitoring study

Variable ≥1 μg/l (LOQ) PR (95% CI) p-value* ≥4 μg/l PR (95% CI) p-value* Geometric mean (μg/g Creatinine) 95% CI
% (n/N)a,b % (n/N)a
All   62.2 (92/148)    16.2 (24/148)    1.33 1.06–1.67
Age (years) 20–44 67.8 (61/90) Ref.   15.6 (14/90) Ref.   1.27 0.95–1.68
45–74 53.5 (31/58) 0.70 (0.60; 1.04) 0.096 17.2 (10/58) 1.11(0.53; 2.33) 0.786 1.42 0.96–2.12
Sex Males 75.8 (47/62) 1.45 (1.13; 1.85) 0.003 22.6 (14/62) 1.94 (0.92; 4.08) 0.080 1.65 1.10–2.48
Females 52.3 (45/86) Ref. 11.6 (10/86) Ref. 1.13 0.87–1.48
Ethnicity Jewish 65.4 (66/101) 1.18 (0.88; 1.58) 0.266 17.8 (18/101) 1.40 (0.59; 3.29) 0.455 1.39 1.06–1.83
Arab 52.3 (23/44) Ref. 13.6 (6/44) Ref. 1.17 0.73–1.86
Residence type Urban 62.0 (85/137) Ref.   15.3 (21/137) Ref.   1.30 1.04–1.63
Rural 63.6 (7/11) 1.03 (0.64; 1.63) 0.915 27.3 (3/11) 1.78 (0.63; 5.05) 0.279 1.69 0.38–7.52
Country of birth Israel 59.7 (77/129) Ref.   14.7 (19/129) Ref.   1.23 0.97–1.56
Other 71.4 (10/14) 1.20 (0.83; 1.72) 0.329 14.3 (2/14) 0.97 (0.25; 3.74) 0.965 1.36 0.77–2.41
Education Lower education 69.4 (77/111) 1.64 (1.08; 2.48) 0.021 20.7 (23/111) 6.84 (0.96; 48.74) 0.055 1.58 1.20–2.07
Higher education 42.4 (14/33) Ref.   3.0 (1/33) Ref.   0.79 0.53–1.19
  1. *Significance levels are based on Univariable log-binomial regression, compared to reference level.
  2. aFor each variable category, the proportion is given as well as, in parentheses, the number of participants above the cut-off (n) and the total number of participants in the category (N).
  3. bCI, Confidence interval; LOQ, Limit of quantification; PR, Prevalence ratio; Ref. = Reference.