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Table 4 Reported daily energy, macronutrient and fibre intakes at baseline, 3 months and 12 months

From: Foods, nutrients or whole diets: effects of targeting fish and LCn3PUFA consumption in a 12mo weight loss trial

Variable Control Fish Fish + S Difference between groups
n Value n Value n Value Effect pvalue*
Energy (kJ)  
Baseline 39 9230 ± 2930 39 10190 ± 3970 40 10480 ± 3320 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 6600 ± 1510 29 6640 ± 1550 28 6350 ± 1240 Group 0.581
12 months 18 7330 ± 1750 25 6760 ± 1750 21 6700 ± 1490 Interaction 0.185
%E from protein  
Baseline 39 19.5 ± 3.5 39 17.8 ± 3.2 40 18.1 ± 3.1 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 23.1 ± 4.1 29 22.4 ± 3.2 28 21.9 ± 2.7 Group 0.075
12 months 18 22.5 ± 3.9 25 21.2 ± 3.8 21 21.6 ± 3.2 Interaction 0.833
%E from fat  
Baseline 39 32.4 ± 5.3 39 35.5 ± 5.9 40 34.9 ± 6.5 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 25.0 ± 6.2 29 27.0 ± 6.3 28 24.9 ± 4.3 Group 0.015
12 months 18 24.4 ± 5.6 25 29.1 ± 7.1 21 26.9 ± 5.8 Interaction 0.366
%E from saturated fat  
Baseline 39 12.2 ± 3.0 39 12.7 ± 3.0 40 13.0 ± 4.0 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 8.1 ± 2.2 29 8.0 ± 2.2 28 7.6 ± 1.6 Group 0.800
12 months 18 8.5 ± 2.9 25 8.7 ± 2.7 21 8.6 ± 2.7 Interaction 0.727
%E from polyunsaturated fats  
Baseline 39 5.2 ± 1.9 39 13.9 ± 3.1 40 13.6 ± 3.5 Time 0.570
3 months 29 4.4 ± 2.1 29 9.6 ± 2.5 28 9.3 ± 2.2 Group < 0.001
12 months 18 3.9 ± 1.1 25 11.3 ± 3.8 21 9.9 ± 3.1 Interaction 0.153
%E from monounsaturated fats  
Baseline 39 12.0 ± 2.5 39 13.9 ± 3.1 40 13.6 ± 3.5 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 9.8 ± 3.3 29 9.6 ± 2.5 28 9.3 ± 2.2 Group 0.075
12 months 18 9.3 ± 2.5 25 11.3 ± 3.8 21 9.9 ± 3.0 Interaction 0.039
P:S ratio  
Baseline 39 0.47 ± 0.24 39 0.50 ± 0.22 40 0.45 ± 0.19 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 0.58 ± 0.31 29 0.88 ± 0.45 28 0.72 ± 0.29 Group 0.007
12 months 18 0.50 ± 0.21 25 0.78 ± 0.59 21 0.73 ± 0.42 Interaction 0.061
Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mg)†‡  
Baseline 39 292 (195 – 760) 39 310 (198 – 446) 40 310 (167 – 474) Time 0.085
3 months 29 314 (178 – 456) 29 430 (219 – 917) 28 512 (272 – 706) Group 0.595
12 months 18 393 (195 – 521) 25 421 (129 – 675) 21 355 (178 – 815) Interaction 0.034
%E from carbohydrates  
Baseline 39 41.5 ± 6.0 39 40.8 ± 6.1 40 43.4 ± 6.8 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 43.2 ± 10.9 29 44.7 ± 7.3 28 47.8 ± 5.5 Group 0.026
12 months 18 45.6 ± 6.0 25 43.4 ± 6.6 21 46.1 ± 4.9 Interaction 0.457
%E from alcohol  
Baseline 39 4.9 ± 5.2 39 4.3 ± 4.3 40 2.3 ± 3.4 Time 0.611
3 months 29 4.8 ± 4.8 29 3.5 ± 3.8 28 2.9 ± 4.3 Group 0.159
12 months 18 5.4 ± 6.0 25 4.0 ± 5.0 21 3.0 ± 3.9 Interaction 0.218
Dietary cholesterol (mg)  
Baseline 39 308 ± 135 39 322 ± 222 40 312 ± 113 Time < 0.001
3 months 29 213 ± 68 29 211 ± 64 28 191 ± 64 Group 0.827
12 months 18 242 ± 89 25 191 ± 63 21 209 ± 73 Interaction 0.885
Dietary fibre (g)  
Baseline 39 25.7 ± 8.4 39 28.5 ± 9.4 40 28.6 ± 12.4 Time 0.008
3 months 29 23.9 ± 6.1 29 25.6 ± 5.9 28 26.1 ± 4.9 Group 0.535
12 months 18 25.2 ± 5.8 25 25.1 ± 6.5 21 25.3 ± 5.7 Interaction 0.855
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range).
  2. P:S ratio, polyunsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio.
  3. *Linear mixed model, significance at p = 0.05.
  4. †Ln transformed.
  5. ‡LC n-3 includes: 20:3n3 (eicosatrienoic acid), 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid), 22:5n3 (docosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n3 (docosahexaenoic acid). Dietary data did not include supplementation.