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Table 3 Association between fruit/vegetable consumption (Low, High) at baseline (cycle 5 in 2002/03) and non-excellent self-rated health, poor mental health (K6 > = 5) at follow-up (cycle 8 in 2008/09) among respondents aged 15–17 years old (n = 250) from the Statistics Canada’s National Population Health Survey (NPHS)

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and health in early adulthood: a longitudinal analysis of the Statistics Canada’s National Population Health Survey

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Controlling for: Sex, age, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at baseline Covariates controlled at Model 1+ highest level of education in the household Covariates controlled at Model 2 + the other covariates† at baseline
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Self-rated health       
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = Low (<5)‡ 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = High (> = 5)‡ 0.36 (0.16-0.81) 0.32 (0.15-0.71) 0.29 (0.13-0.69)
 p for difference (df = 1) 0.014 0.005 0.005
Mental health (K6 scores)       
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = Low (<5)‡ 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = High (> = 5)‡ 1.11 (0.51-2.44) 1.06 (0.48-2.35) 1.11 (0.48-2.54)
 p for group difference (df = 1) 0.791 0.888 0.813
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidential interval.
  2. †:The other covariates included alcohol consumption, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, and household size.
  3. ‡:Frequency per day. The numbers of respondents were 160 and 90 for the Low and High groups, respectively.