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Table 2 Association between fruit/vegetable consumption (Low, Moderate, High) at baseline (cycle 5 in 2002/03) and non-excellent self-rated health, poor mental health (K6 > = 5) at follow-up (cycle 8 in 2008/09) among respondents aged 15–17 years old (n = 250) from the Statistics Canada’s National Population Health Survey (NPHS)

From: Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and health in early adulthood: a longitudinal analysis of the Statistics Canada’s National Population Health Survey

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Controlling for: Sex, age, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at baseline Covariates controlled at Model 1+ highest level of education in the household Covariates controlled at Model 2 + the other covariates† at baseline
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Self-rated health       
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = Low (< = 3.14)‡ 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = Moderate (3.14-5.00)‡ 1.16 (0.45-2.99) 1.16 (0.45-2.98) 1.11 (0.41-3.04)
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = High (5<)‡ 0.37 (0.14-0.98) 0.33 (0.13-0.85) 0.30 (0.11-0.83)
 p for difference (df = 2) 0.033 0.011 0.013
Mental health (K6 scores)       
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = Low (< = 3.14)‡ 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = Moderate (3.14-5.00)‡ 1.04 (0.40-2.68) 1.03 (0.39-2.72) 1.22 (0.45-3.28)
 Fruit and vegetable consumption = High (5<)‡ 1.16 (0.46-2.98) 1.10 (0.42-2.87) 1.25 (0.45-3.45)
 p for group difference (df = 2) 0.946 0.980 0.898
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidential interval.
  2. †:The other covariates included alcohol consumption, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, and household size.
  3. ‡:Frequency per day.