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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants

From: The oral health of heroin drug users: case study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Socio-demographic characteristics and oral hygiene habits Bad oral health Good oral health p
(n = 270) (n = 249)
Age (years), mean ± SD 30.6 ± 7.5 26.8 ± 5.7 <0.001*
Gender, n (%)    0.345
   Males 254 (94.1) 229 (92.0)
   Females 16 (5.9) 20 (8.0)
Level of education, n (%)    <0.001*
   No education 16 (5.9) 9 (3.6)
   Primary 96 (35.6) 38 (15.3)
   Secondary 152 (56.3) 196 (78.7)
   College/Faculty 6 (2.2) 6 (2.4)
Marital status, n (%)    0.256
   Married 42 (15.6) 35 (14.1)
   Permanent relationship 64 (23.7) 75 (30.1)
   Single 164 (60.7) 139 (55.8)
Employment status, n (%)    0.001*
   Full – time job 7 (2.6) 21 (8.4)
   Part – time job 13 (4.8) 17 (6.8)
   Unemployed 249 (92.2) 204 (81.9)
   Student 1 (0.4) 7 (2.8)
Housing, n (%)    0.130
   House/apartment (own or parents’) 209 (71.4) 206 (82.7)
   Other 61 (22.6) 43 (17.3)
Duration of drug injection (years), median (range) 6 (0 – 33) 3 (0 – 23) <0.001*
Frequency of drug injection in last month, mean ± SD 5.7 ± 2.1 5.2 ± 2.1 0.009*
Frequency of teeth brushing, n (%)    <0.001*
   Do not brush teeth 59 (21.9) 6 (2.4)
   Brush teeth but not every day 70 (25.9) 32 (12.9)
   Once a day 73 (27.0) 88 (35.3)
   Twice a day 52 (19.3) 98 (39.4)
   After every meal 16 (5.9) 25 (10.0)
Regular checkups at the dentist, n (%)    <0.001*
   Do not go 262 (97.0) 218 (87.6)
   Go 8 (3.0) 31 (12.4)
  1. *Statistical significance was considered p < 0.05.