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Table 2 Smoking history, cessation behaviours and outcomes by regular use of heroin in year before prison

From: Heroin use impairs smoking cessation among Australian prisoners

  Not regularly used heroin % (N = 265) Regularly used heroin % (N = 160) Total men % (N = 425) P-value
Smoking behaviours     
Mean age first smoked tobacco 14.1 13.0 13.7 P < 0.02
  (+SD; Range) (4.8; 5–39) (3.1; 5–22) (4.3; 5–39)  
Mean age first smoked tobacco daily 16.0 14.6 15.5 P < 0.01
  (+SD; Range) (4.6; 5–39) (3.2; 7–30) (4.2; 5–39)  
Mean years smoked tobacco 20.3 19.0 19.8 NS
  (+SD; Range) (11.2; 0–52) (8.4; 3–46) (10.2; 0–52)  
Mean carbon monoxide reading 14.1 14.5 14.3 NS
  (+SD; Range) (7.5; 1–43) (8.2; 3–59) (7.8; 1–59)  
Mean cigarettes smoked per day 23.1 23.3 23.2 NS
  (+SD; Range) (10.3; 3–75) (8.9; 5–60) (9.8; 3–75)  
Smoke 20+ cigarettes per day 67.6 74.4 70.1 NS
High tobacco dependence (Fagerström 6+) 80.8 86.3 82.8 NS
Share a cell with a smoker 32.2 35.6 33.5 NS
Smoke White Ox (loose tobacco) 97.0 97.5 97.2 NS
Smoking cessation behaviours     
Mean times tried to quit smoking 2.9 2.2 2.6 NS
  (+SD; Range) (8.6; 0–128) (2.6; 0–20) (7.9; 0–128)  
Quitting behaviours in past year     
  Given up more than one month 14.0 11.3 12.9 NS
  Tried to give up unsuccessfully 64.2 53.8 60.2 P < 0.04
  Lower tar or nicotine content 7.9 4.4 6.6 NS
  Reduced amount tobacco smoked 50.2 43.8 47.8 NS
  Quit on purpose for 24 hours 57.0 48.1 53.7 NS
  Any type of quitting behaviour 76.2 68.8 73.4 NS
Smoking cessation intervention outcomes     
Active NOR versus placebo NOR 49.4 46.9 48.5 NS
Quit smoking at 12 months: point prevalence 18.5 5.0 13.4 P < 0.01
Quit smoking at 12 months: continuous abstinence 16.6 3.8 11.2 P < 0.01
50% smoking reduction at 12 months 76.2 72.2 74.7 NS
  1. Abbreviations: SD = standard deviation; NS = not significant; NOR = nortriptyline.