Skip to main content

Table 3 Main effects

From: Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

Outcome measures n N Studies Cohen’s d(95% CI) Heterogeneity Test for overall effect
Post-test       
Subjective well-being 28 Ne=1449 Nc=1265 [29, 3234, 51, 5659, 61, 62, 64, 6671, 73, 75, 77, 7981, 84, 85] 0.34 (0.22 – 0.45) Q=53.5, df=27, T2=0.04 (p<.01); I2=49.5% Z=5.82 (p<.01)
Psychological well-being 20 Ne=2511 Nc=977 [29, 30, 32, 33, 5155, 60, 62, 65, 69, 7477, 8184] 0.20 (0.09 – 0.30) Q=26.8, df=19, T2=0.01 (p=0.11); I2=29.0% Z=3.65 (p<.01)
Depression 14 Ne=2435 Nc=760 [30, 5155, 61, 63, 69, 74, 76, 80, 82, 83] 0.23 (0.09 – 0.38) Q=24.5, df=13, T2=0.03 (p=0.03); I2=47.0% Z=3.21 (p<.01)
Follow-up       
Subjective well-being 6 Ne=329 Nc=298 [51, 57, 62, 67, 69, 77] 0.22 (0.05 – 0.38) Q=5.05, df=5, T2=0.00 (p=0.41); I2=1.1% Z=2.61 (p<.01)
Psychological well-being 6 Ne=1830 Nc=417 [30, 5255, 62, 69, 74, 77] 0.16 (0.02 – 0.30) Q=6.8, df=5, T2=0.01 (p=0.24); I2=26.0% Z=2.20 (p=.03)
Depression 5 Ne=1765 Nc=343 [30, 5155, 69, 74] 0.17 (−0.06 – 0.39) Q=11.1, df=4, T2=0.04 (p=0.03); I2=63.9% Z=1.44 (p=.15)
  1. n = Number of studies, N = Number of subjects, Ne = Number of subjects in experimental group; Nc = Number of subjects in control group.