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Table 1 Four types of HIA effectiveness

From: The effectiveness of health impact assessment in influencing decision-making in Australia and New Zealand 2005–2009

  Modification of pending decisions
Yes No
Health adequately acknowledged Yes Direct effectiveness General effectiveness
•HIA-related changes in the decision •Reasons provided for not following HIA recommendations
•Due to the HIA the project was dropped •Health consequences are negligible or positive
•Decision was postponed due to HIA •HIA has raised awareness among policy-makers
No Opportunistic effectiveness No effectiveness
•The decision favouring health would have been made anyway •The HIA was ignored
    •The HIA was dismissed
  1. Source: [12].