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Table 2 Main prevalence studies conducted using the PCR method

From: Rome consensus conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males

Population type (n° males examined) Country Prevalence of positive HPV DNA (PCR test) Prevalence of positive HPV DNA tests (high-risk genotypes)
Population (290) USA 30.0%; 16.6%;
Giuliano et al., 2007 [7]
Military recruits (285) Finland 16.5%; - -
Hippelainen et al., 1993 [8]
University students (317) USA 32.8%; 14.5%;
Weaver et al., 2004 [9]
Students and industrial workers (114) Mexico 36.0%; 16.7%;
Lazcano-Ponce et al., 2001 [10]
Military recruits (337) Denmark 33.8%; - -
Kjaier et al., 2005 [11]
Military men (1030) Mexico 44.6%; 34.8
Lajous et al., 2005 [12]
University students (381) South Korea 8.7%; 4.2%;
Shin et al., 2004 [13]
Subjects attending STD clinics (235) Sweden 13.2%; 8.1%;
Wikstrom et al., 2000 [14]
Subjects attending STD clinics (198) Denmark 44.9%; - -
Svare et al., 2002 [15]
Subjects attending STD clinics (393) US 28.2%; 12.0%;
Baldwin et al., 2003 [16]
Subjects attending STD clinics (85) Netherland 28.2%; - -
Van Doornum et al., 1994 [17]
Subjects attending STD clinics (204) Japan 5.9%; 5.9%;
Takahashi et al., 2005 [18]
Males with female partner affected by CIN (119) Netherland 59.0%; 55.4%;
Bleeker et al., 2002 [19]
Husbands of women recruited in case–control studies on carcinoma of the cervix (1143) Thailand, Philippines, Brazil, Columbia, Spain 16.0%; - -
Franceschi et al., 2002 [20]
Males with female partner affected by CIN (181) Netherland 72.9%; 58.6%;
Bleeker et al., 2005 [21]
Males with female partner affected by CIN (77) Finland 9.1%; - -
Hippelainen et al., 1994 [22]
Males with female partner affected by HPV (50) Brazil 70.0%; - -
Nicolau et al., 2005 [23]  
Males through 18–70 years from one of the three sampling sites (1,160) Brazil 65.2%; 12.0%; oncogenic types only
Giuliano et al., 2008 [6] Mexico
  USA   
  1. PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction, CIN Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.