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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by VCT use indicators

From: Community stigma endorsement and voluntary counseling and testing behavior and attitudes among female heads of household in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

Variablea Lifetime VCT Use Past-6-Months VCT Use Endorsement of VCT use
% never accessed % accessed P-value % never accessed % accessed P-value % not important % important P-value
(n = 3260) (n = 489)   (n = 3375) (n = 374)   (n = 393) (n = 676)
Reside in isolated districtb 41.0 37.5 <0.001 59.2 62.6 0.007 57.1 63.9 0.017
Understand Portuguese 36.6 49.6 <0.001 36.7 53.6 <0.001 42.6 49.0 0.002
Marital status    0.063    0.010    0.951
 Married 74.9 69.8   73.7 75.9   73.5 71.3  
 Divorced/separated 3.8 4.0   4.0 2.%   6. 3.3  
 Single 17.0 19.1   18.0 13.9   16.7 18.1  
 Widowed 4.3 7.1   4.4 7.5   3.5 7.3  
Religion    0.393    0.898    0.088
 Catholic 45.0 41.4   45.4 37.6   42.7 44.7  
 Protestant 13.7 20.1   13.8 21.6   10.5 16.8  
 Evangelical/Pentecostal 15.7 20.2   16.1 19.1   14.1 16.4  
 Other Christianc 3.9 6.2   3.8 7.5   5.2 8.3  
 Muslim 9.9 4.4   9.7 4.0   14.2 4.8  
 Non-Christian Eastern 2.9 1.0   2.7 1.2   1.7 1.9  
 Otherc 8.9 6.8   8.4 9.0   11.6 7.2  
HIV infection of self, relative and/or friend 8.0 25.2 <0.001 8.5 28.1 <0.001 9.8 24.9 <0.001
Accessed health facility 70.6 87.8 <0.001 71.7 87.0 <0.001 82.8 83.4 0.002
Accessed pharmacy 19.6 29.5 <0.001 19.8 31.6 <0.001 32.0 34.3 0.092
Accessed traditional healer 43.4 46.6 0.005 44.6 40.2 0.108 41.7 50.6 0.005
Believes ART helps people with HIV to be healthier 20.4 64.5 <0.001 22.7 65.1 <0.001 26.1 65.9 <0.001
Believes in alternative treatments for HIV 5.7 18.1 <0.001 6.3 19.0 <0.001 5.9 17.4 <0.001
Perceived chance of becoming infected with HIV    <0.001    <0.001    0.036
 Don’t know 54.1 40.5   53.7 37.7   60.9 39.4  
 No chance 25.1 15.8   24.1 18.6   15.3 22.2  
 Small chance 15.3 26.4   15.4 29.7   14.7 23.1  
 Good chance 4.8 9.6   5.8 5.3   5.5 9.9  
  Median (IQR) a Median (IQR)   Median (IQR) Median (IQR)   Median (IQR) Median (IQR)  
Age (years) 29 (23–38) 26 (22–35) <0.001 29 (23–38) 25 (22–33) <0.001 28 (23–35) 26 (23–34) 0.004
Education (years) 1 (0–4) 3 (0–5) <0.001 1 (0–4) 4 (0–5) <0.001 2 (0–4) 3 (0–6) <0.001
Distance to clinic (km) 7.2 (4.1 - 10.4) 4.3 (0.6-9.3) <0.001 7.2 (3.9-10.4) 4.1 (0.6 - 9.3) <0.001 6.1 (3–9.4) 4.6 (0.6-9.1) 0.006
Negative labeling and devaluation 38 (29–50) 33 (26–48) 0.496 38 (29–50) 37 (30–48) 0.859 44 (33–53) 38 (29–48) 0.788
Social exclusion 47 (33–67) 40 (27–56) <0.001 47 (33–60) 40 (26–53) <0.001 47 (32–67) 40 (27–53) <0.001
  1. [a] Continuous variables were analyzed as weighted estimates of medians (interquartile range), with each observation weighted by the inverse of the household sampling probability. Categorical variables were analyzed as weighted percentages, with each observation being weighted by the inverse of the household sampling probability. Tests of association with VCT outcomes (binary) were conducted using the rank sum test (continuous) or chi-square test (categorical).
  2. [b] Isolated districts include Inhassunge, Milange, Morrumbala, Mopeia, Gile, Maganja da Costa and Lugela.
  3. [c] ‘Other Christian’ includes LDS Mormon and Jehovah’s Witness. ‘Other’ includes Spiritual, Traditional Religions, and Agnostic or Atheist.