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Table 4 Effects of perceived psychosocial stress on moderate and heavy smoking pattern

From: The effect of psychosocial stress on single mothers’ smoking

  Non- smoking Moderate smoking Heavy smoking Moderate smoking Heavy smoking
High psychosocial stress due to… % n % n % n OR CI 95% OR CI 95%
financial worries 23.5 470 33.3 197 44.8 147 1.22 0.78-1.89 2.54 1.53-4.20
career situation/unemployment 18.3 363 24.4 145 31.9 105 1.39 1.06-1.81 1.64 1.15-2.33
conflicts with the partner or ex-partner 14.5 290 19.0 113 22.4 73 1.47 1.10-1.97 1.69 1.15-2.49
sole responsibility for the child/ren 19.9 395 25.4 151 34.3 113 1.47 1.11-1.95 1.63 1.12-2.38
child-rearing difficulties 18.3 361 18.4 109 27.8 91 1.02 0.76-1.35 1.54 1.08-2.19
unwanted living alone/loneliness 6.1 121 6.4 38 16.3 53 1.14 0.55-2.34 2.99 1.48-6.04
little recognition of family work 16.2 324 15.8 94 27.2 89 1.13 0.84-1.52 2.19 1.55-3.09
a family member in need of care 6.0 118 4.9 29 11.0 36 0.96 0.61-1.52 2.10 1.29-3.43
conflicts with other family members 11.4 226 10.6 63 16.1 52 1.16 0.84-1.60 1.60 1.06-2.41
household requirements 26.3 523 22.3 132 27.7 91 1.07 0.84-1.37 1.19 0.85-1.66
family demands 29.8 593 29.4 175 29.5 97 1.27 1.00-1.60 1.29 0.93-1.78
a disabled or chronically ill child 4.8 95 4.7 28 5.8 19 1.12 0.69-1.83 0.86 0.41-1.79
balancing family and job demands 16.9 336 16.4 97 21.0 69 1.23 0.92-1.64 1.23 0.83-1.83
  1. Notes: Results of logistic regression analysis adjusted for single motherhood, interaction term between single motherhood and stressors, mother’s age and age of youngest child. Moderate smoking = < 20 cig./day, heavy smoking = ≥ 20 cig./day (reference category = non-smoking), high psychosocial stress = categories 4 and 5 of response format (reference categories = 1 to 3), OR = odds ratio, CI 95% = 95% confidence interval. Bold values indicate significant effects.