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Table 3 Effect of single motherhood on perceived psychosocial stress

From: The effect of psychosocial stress on single mothers’ smoking

  Single mothers Partnered mothers Single motherhood
High psychosocial stress due to…. % n % n OR CI 95%
financial worries 51.9 261 23.1 575 3.55 2.89-3.58
career situation/unemployment 38.5 193 17.7 441 2.89 2.34-3.58
conflicts with the partner or ex-partner 29.4 148 13.9 346 2.71 2.15-3.41
household requirements 29.5 148 25.0 623 1.45 1.17-1.81
family demands 34.1 171 29.9 726 1.51 1.22-1.86
sole responsibility for the child/ren 56.4 238 15.1 376 8.03 6.48-9.99
a disabled or chronically ill child 5.8 29 4.6 114 1.30 0.85-2.00
child-rearing difficulties 28.3 142 17.2 428 1.91 1.53-2.40
a family member in need of care 6.0 30 6.5 160 0.93 0.62-1.41
balancing family and job demands 27.5 139 15.3 380 2.36 1.82-2.90
conflicts with other family members 12.0 60 11.8 294 1.03 0.76-1.39
unwanted living alone/loneliness 31.5 159 2.3 58 19.49 13.94-27.24
little recognition of family work 25.6 129 15.8 354 1.88 1.48-2.38
  1. Notes: Results of logistic regression analysis adjusted for mother’s age and age of youngest child. High psychosocial stress = categories 4 and 5 of response format (reference categories = 1 to 3), reference category of 'single motherhood’ = partnered mothers. Bold values indicate significant effects.