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Table 3 Relationship of socio-demographic variables and social-psychological factors with the mothers’ HPV vaccination intention

From: Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study

Variables Univariate simple regression analysis among 75% of the mothers (n = 732) Multivariate backward regression analysis among 75% of the mothers (n = 727) Multivariate backward regression analysis among 25% of the mothers (n = 219)
Mean (standard deviation) or percentage Association1 Beta (standard error) Standardized Beta Beta (standard error) Standardized Beta
HPV vaccination uptake   .48** 0.48 (0.10) .11** 0.57 (0.19) .13*
Has not received three HPV-injections (reference) 54%      
Has received three HPV-injections 46%      
Sample   .00 −0.01 (0.07) 0.00 0.15 (0.14) .04
Praeventis (reference) 47%      
Online panel 53%      
Socio-demographic variables       
Age 43.51 (4.54) .00 −0.01 (0.01) -.02 0.00 (0.01) .01
Highest completed level of education mother   .00     
Low (reference) 25%      
Intermediate 45%   0.08 (0.08) .02 −0.02 (0.17) -.00
High 30%   0.13 (0.09) .03 0.27 (0.18) .06
Country of birth mother   .00     
The Netherlands (reference) 88%      
Surinam/Antilles 4%   −0.22 (0.18) -.02 0.42 (0.32) .04
Turkey/Morocco 4%   −0.51 (0.18) -.05* 0.18 (0.32) .02
Other 3%   −0.30 (0.18) -.03 0.10 (0.41) .01
Protestant religion   .02**     
No (reference) 77%      
Yes 23%   −0.08 (0.08) -.02 −0.05 (0.15) -.01
Social psychological variables       
Knowledge about the HPV vaccination 4.82 (2.42) .00     
Risk perception (having received no HPV vaccination) −0.61 (1.21) .20**     
Risk perception (having received the HPV vaccination) −1.22 (1.09) .01     
Attitude towards the HPV vaccination 2.78 (6.93) .76** 0.12 (0.01) .39** 0.13 (0.02) .42**
Negative outcome expectations of the HPV vaccination 7.24 (4.56) .14**     
Positive outcome expectations of the HPV vaccination −3.44 (3.86) .10**     
Anticipated regret about rejecting the HPV vaccination 3.27 (1.44) .46** 0.20 (0.03) .13**   
Anticipated regret about receiving the vaccination 3.38 (1.39) .06** −0.08 (0.03) -.05*   
Beliefs about the HPV vaccination 1.42 (9.92) .60** 0.03 (0.01) .14** 0.03 (0.01) .12*
Relative effectiveness of the HPV vaccination −0.61 (1.20) .54**     
Ambivalence towards the HPV vaccination decision 0.36 (5.30) .01*     
Confidence in authorities involved in the HPV vaccination 1.60 (3.49) .42**     
Subjective norms towards the HPV vaccination 16.81 (23.57) .67** 0.02 (0.00) .19** 0.02 (0.01) .20**
Descriptive norms towards the HPV vaccination 4.53 (1.34) .15**     
Self-efficacy expectations towards the HPV vaccination 11.87 (4.66) .01     
HPV vaccination information processing 3.79 (2.40) .06**     
Habit strength towards the HPV vaccination −0.81 (3.64) .41** 0.07 (0.02) .11** 0.12 (0.03) .19**
Decisional conflict about the HPV vaccination – value clarity 3.03 (4.29) .00     
Decisional conflict about the HPV vaccination – certainty 2.00 (4.69) .02** −0.05 (.01) -.10** −0.07 (0.02) -.15**
Opinion about alternative medicine −0.43 (2.37) .02*     
Past experience of the mother with cervical cancer   .00     
No (reference) 98%      
Yes 2%      
Past experience of the mother with other cancer forms   .00     
No (reference) 97%      
Yes 3%      
Past experience of the mother with abnormal pap smear   .00     
No (reference) 87%      
Yes 13%      
Past experience of someone from the close environment with cervical cancer   .00     
No (reference) 67%      
Yes 33%      
Past experience of someone from the close environment with other cancer forms   .00     
No (reference) 10%      
Yes 90%      
Past experience of someone from the close environment with abnormal pap smear   0.00     
No (reference) 50%      
Yes 50%      
Model fit for multivariate models       
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake     .47   .48
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake     .47   .48
F change of HPV vaccination uptake     653.97**   198.23**
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake + sample     .47   .48
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample     .00   .00
F change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample     0.04   0.36
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic variables     .49   .50
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic variables     .01   .02
F change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic variables     2.82*   1.37
R2 of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic + social-psychological variables     .84   .81
R2 change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic + social-psychological variables     .35   .31
F change of HPV vaccination uptake + sample + socio-demographic + social-psychological variables     218.92**   66.04**
  1. Notes 1) R**2; Mothers received questions about the HPV vaccination of their daughter, whereas daughters answered questions about the HPV vaccination of themselves; *p < .01; **p < .001.
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